Human Anatomy: Hematology Lecture 3

Overview
Today’s lecture is 46 minutes long.

Details
Lymphocytes make up 25% of all WBCs. B lymphocytes originate in the embryo in the bone marrow. Make immuniglobulins against bacteria.

T lymphocytes originate in the thymus. LCs multiply in the lymphatic organs like tonsils, appendix. The thymus is between the thyroid and the heart in children. It degenerates beginning at puberty. T LCs are helper T cells/CD4/T4 cells. Cytotoxic T cells/CD8/killers.

Helper T’s release interferon that interferes with viral replication. Release cytokines that activate B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T cells. HIV/AIDS destroy helper T cells.

CD8 cells release perforin which causes foreign cells to rupture.

Lymphocytopemia is low LC count. Lymphocytosis is high, usually from virus or bacterial infection.

B LCs make antiBodies.

BLOOD TESTS
Numbers are set up to either be in range or out of range. Glucose should be around 100 mg/dL. Bun is blood urea nitrogen; urea is a waste product from AA breakdown. If higher than normal, kidney failure is probable. Creatnine is a muscle waste product.

ALT is a liver enzyme. Total biliruben from breakdown of RBCs. Calcuim is important for blood clotting and muscle contractions. 150 mEQ/mL is normal Na value, 5 for K. Uric acid is from the breakdown of nucleotides. Cholesterol should be less than 200.

Total protein should be 7%. Albumin creases a Colloid Osmotic Pressure, COP. HGB should be around 15%, it is hemoglobin. HCT is hematocrit and should be 45%. A differential WBC counts monocytes, basophils, and so on. A cytologist does this.

It is usual to have several pathologies at once.

Review
Intermolecular Forces: ionic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

High T, higher basicity and more steric hinderance favor E vs SN rxns.

Nucleophiles are anions, electrophiles are cations

Better leaving groups are weak bases/stronger bases.

SN2 intermediate is trigonal bipyramidal, SN1 intermediate is trigonal planer

SN2 is an interchange rxn, SN1 is a dissociative rxn

SLLS stop look listen smell

625/50 is PAL. 525/30 is NTSC.

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Asatru – A Native European Religion

Human Anatomy: Hematology Lecture 2

Overview
Today’s lecture is 43 minutes long.

Details
Normal RBC counts are 5 million/mm3 or 5M/1mL. RBCs are made in the vertebra, ribs and sternum. The kidneys secrete renin and erythropoetin which is RBC production.

RBCs live for about 4 months because they have no nucleus. Macrophages in the blood break down the RBCs into hemoglobin. Iron is recycled. Bilibuben is ironless RBCs. The spleen and liver are the sites of destruction. Transferin transports Fe.

Normal hemoglobin count is 15 g/100mL or 15%. O2 capacity is proportional to RBC #.

There are many types of anemia. Iron deficient anemia. Vitamine B12 anemia. Aplastic anemia is degeneration of red bone marrow. Sickle cell anemia is abnormal hemoglobin.

Blood platelets are thrombocytes which consist of cell fragments. Made in red bone marrow. Stimulated by thrombopoetin from the liver. Thromobocytopenia is lower than normal BP number.

Hemostasis is bleeding control. It begins with a vascular spasm. Then a blood platelet plug is formed. A fibrin clot is then formed. Aspirin interferes with the attachment of the platelets.

Leukopenia is a lack of WBCs. Normal value is 7K/mm3. Neutrophils are small phagocytes. Lymphocytes are an immune response. Monocytes are macophages. Eosinophils eat allergens. Basophils or mast cells make heparin and histamine.

Only sperm and WBCs move on their own. Granulocytes have little granules or vacoules than pick up die. Agranular are monocytes and lymphocytes.

Review
Intermolecular Forces: ionic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

Nucleophiles are anions, electrophiles are cations

Better leaving groups are weak bases/stronger bases.

SN2 intermediate is trigonal bipyramidal, SN1 intermediate is trigonal planer

SN2 is an interchange rxn, SN1 is a dissociative rxn

SLLS stop look listen smell

625/50 is PAL. 525/30 is NTSC.

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Russian Paganism

April 11, 2013 2 comments

Revilo Oliver — After 50 Years – National Youth Alliance – 1969

Human Anatomy: Hematology Lecture 1

Overview
Today’s lecture is 55 minutes long.

Details
TBV = 8% x BW in kg
=0.08 x 70 kg = 5.6L

A kilogram of blood is about the same as a liter. Hematocrit is % packed cell volume. Blood is 55% plasma, 45% formed elements. Hematocrit tubes are thin and spun. Anemia is low Hct. Polycythemia is high Hct. Living at higher altitudes can cause polycythemia.

Plasma Volume = 55% x BL = 0.55*5.6L = 2.9L

Sometimes whole blood is given, or plasma, or formed elements. Blood plasma is 90% H2o with some proteins at 7%, 7g/100mL. Most are made in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. Plasma proteins are seperated by electrophoresis.

-phoresis is “to seperate.”
-emia means “in the blood.”

The heavier elements are pulled down. Plasma on top, a middle layer of platelets and WBCs, and RBCs on bottom.

Blood contains RBCs, WBCs and platelets. 3 million RBCs. 7000 WBCs.

Negative charges inside the cell come from proteins. They are attracted to + charges. Low molecular weight proteins move the fastest in gel electrophoresis.

Most blood proteins are albumin, 60%. They maintain plasma volume by osmotically drawing water into the bloodstream. Globulins are 35%. Alpha and beta globulins carry lipids and some minerals through the blood. HDL and LDL are alpha globulins and transport cholesterol. LDL deposits cholesterol into the blood, HDL takes it from the blood. LDL production is genetic.

Transferin transports iron, its a beta globulin. Gamma or immunogloblins or antibodies are made by B lymphocytes. Most antibodies are IGGs and attack bacteria/viruses. Fewest antibodies are IGEs for allergies.

Platelets are made in the liver. Cell fragments. Serum is plasma – clotting factors. Hemophilliacs can’t make platelets. Heparing prevents blood clots.

Normal blood glucose levels are 100 mg/dL. Cholesterol is less than 200 mg?dL. BUN and NH3 from AA breakdown. Uric acid comes from nucleotide breakdown. Creatnine is a waste product from muscles.

Na+ is 150 mEq/L. K+ is 5 mEq/L. H2CO3 is the major extracellular buffur. H3PO4 is the major intercellular fluid.

Plasma is water with proteins at 7%. 60% of that is albumin, 35% is alpha and beta globulin.

Formed elements, most are RBCs 5 million/mm3. WBCs are 7K/mm3.

RBCs are very small. Antigens on the surface are ABO and Rh antigens. They only live for 4 months. They have no nucleus. They carry no genetic information and cannot self repair. Made in the ribs, vertebral column and the sternum.

Yellow marrow doesn’t produce RBCs. Red marrow is red and still makes RBCs.

There is an A protein and a B protein. Type O is neither. Then there is the Rh MHC marker. 85% of people are Rh+. Type O Rh- make antibodies against Rh, A and B. Type AB Rh+ is the universal recipient. It is possible for a mother’s immune system to attack a baby with the wrong markers – Rh imcompatability.

Review
Intermolecular Forces: ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

cationic electrophile, anionic nucleophile

The Y factor is log (k/ko) = mY where ko is a standard of 80% ethanol in H2O.

Dialectric constant less than 15, nonpolar

Good leaving groups are weak bases

Basic conditions, 2 and 3o alkyl halides
Acidic conditions, 2 and 3o alcohols

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Huey Long

April 10, 2013 3 comments

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