Home > Chemistry, Organic chemistry > Chemistry 51A Lecture 9 Notes 10/19/2012

Chemistry 51A Lecture 9 Notes 10/19/2012

Overview

Today is a 36 minute lecture on alkanes.

Details

Alkanes C2H2n+2

We will be introducing stereochemistry.  Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.  Cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with a ring, CnH2n.

Octane gives your vehicle less knocking.  Heptane has an octane number of 0.  C8H18.

Cyclohexane is C6H12.  Main source is from the ground, often used as fuel.  Important starting points for complex drugs, plastics.

C8H18 + 12.5O2 = 8CO2 + 9H2o

CH4 is methane.  Low boiling point (BP) of -167.

CH3CH2 is ethane.  A gas with more vdW interactions.  BP of -89 C.  From air.

C3H8 is propane.  BP is -42C.  Can be easily liquified, a liquid at 10 atm.  1 atm is 15.9 lbs/sq inch.

C4H10 is butane.   BP is -1 C.  Gas.  A liquid at 2 atm, room temperature.  From butter.

C5H12 is pentane.  A low boiling liquid.  BP is 36 C.  Heat of vaporization or heat to boiling is low.

Hexane is C6H14 with BP 69 C.

C7H16 is heptane with BP

C8H18 is octance.

C9H20 is nonane.

C10H22 is decane.

C20H42 is eicosane.

C5 up to C17 are liquids.  C17+ are waxy solids.  Low density of less than 1 gram/ml.

Constituional isomers have the same formula but different connectivity.  Stereo isomers have the same connectivity but a different 3D structure.

Butane has isomers of n-butane for normal butane CH3CH2CH2CH3.  Also isobutane CH3CHCH3CH3, aka 2-methyl propane.

Pentane has 3 isomers.  n pentane 36.  isopentan  30e.  neopenatane or 2,2-dimethyl propane   9.

Butane has 2 CIs.  Hexane has 5 CIs.  Heptane has 9 CIs.   Octane has 18.  petroleum companies are cataloging all isomers.

Primary carbon is connected to one other carbon.  Secondary carbons are connected to two other carbons.  Finally, three other carbons are connected to a tertiary carbon.

Primary hydrogen is attached to one carbon.

Review

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified    cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple

pKa’s:

Alkanes (50)

CH4/CH3-

Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr  -9

HI -10 NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+  (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

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