Home > Chemistry, Organic chemistry > Chemistry 51A Lecture 10 Notes 10/21/2009

Chemistry 51A Lecture 10 Notes 10/21/2009

Overview

Today is a 53 minute lecture on nomenclature.

Details

Naming organic molecules involves adherence to a set of rules:

1) Name the longest chain and ID substituents

3-methylheptane, not 2-ethylhexane

2) Number the chain in order to give the lowest number to the first substituent

3) Alphabetize multiple substituents

4) Use di, tri, tetra, etc for counting the numbering

2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Certain substituents have names that you should know.  Isopropyl, The, sec/secondary butyl, t/tert butyl, neopentyl.

Cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with a ring.  The smallest is cyclopentane, which is very strained.  Cyclobutane is C4H8, cyclopentane C5H10, cyclohexane C6H12.  Tert-butylcyclohexane.

Computers are great for following archaic rules.

Conformation of Alkanes

Single bonds are free to rotate.  The hydrogens don’t necessarily overlap.  There is staggered confirmation and eclipsed.  To see this, stare down the barrel.  Staggered is lower energy than eclipsed.  This may be seen on Newman projections.  The angle between hydrogens is 60 degrees in the staggered mode.

Energy (kCal/mol)              hi     lo      hi        lo            hi    lo    hi

degrees: 0    60    120       180   240   300 360

1 cal/mole per H-H eclipse.

Review

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified    cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple

pKa’s:

Alkanes (50)

CH4/CH3-

Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr  -9

HI -10 NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+  (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

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