Home > Chemistry, Organic chemistry, Uncategorized > Chem 51A 10/28/09 Lecture 13 Notes

Chem 51A 10/28/09 Lecture 13 Notes

Overview

Today is a 51 minute lecture on stereochemistry. 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZcYvls33xPU&feature=relmfu

Details

Attach two methyl groups to 1 and 2 positions on cyclopropane.  In one molecule, the methyls point up.  In the other, the methyls point down. 

Cis and trans are the next concepts up. 

Stereoisomers – isomers with the same connectivity but a different arrangement of atoms in space. 

Cis-1,2-dimethyl cyclopropane has the same molecular formula as cyclopentane, C5H10.  These are constitutional isomers, having the same formula but different connections.  Trans-1,2-dimethyl cyclopropane has the methyl groups on opposite sides of the ring.

Enantiomers are stereoisomers that are non-superimposable.  That is the litmus test.  Are the two structures mirror images?

2-butanol is a butane chain with a hydroxy group added.  (CH3)C(OH)HC3H7.  There are 4 different substituents on the carbon.  2-butanol is chiral.  It has a tetrahedral asymmetric center. 

A molecule with a tetrahedral asymmetric center is generally chiral.  A molecule with a plane of symmetry is achiral. 

Diasteromers are stereoisomers that are not enatomers. 

He draws out stereoisomers of 2-methyl-1-cyclopentanol. 

Review

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple

pKa’s:

Alkanes (50)

CH4/CH3-

Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr -9

HI -10 NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+ (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

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