Home > Anatomy, Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy: Lecture 1

Introduction to Human Anatomy: Lecture 1


This is our new series on human anatomy and terminology.  It’s been quite a while since we took Dr Mariam Diamond’s class.  Seems like a good time to review.  Today is a 60 minute lecture on anatomy.  Our teacher is white, speaks at a good pace, and seems to be a Jew.

The teacher has a very nice website:



Anatomy  – up, to cut – the study of body structure or morphology.   How the body looks.

Physiology – study of how the body functions, biochemical processes.  How the body works.

This began in 1543 with De Humani Corporis Fabricaf, a 7 volume collection of anatomic drawings.  The author, Andreas Veraluis,  lived from 1514 to 1564.

Levels of Organization – atom, molecule, tissue, tissue system, organ, organism, community, ecosystem, biosphere

From macroscopic to microscopic: gross anatomy, surface, regional, radiological/systemic anatomy, neuroanatomy, histology.

The sternal angle or the angle of Louis.  Take your finger and rub your sternum.  The ridge is the angle of Louis.  Just to the side of that is the second pair of ribs.  That’s the top of the heart.  You must be able to find this on yourself to be able to find this on your patient.

The spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra.  Cervical means neck.  You can “palpate” or touch/feel it.  A bump on the back of your neck.  It’s an anatomic landmark.  Two spines below the 7th cervical is the top of the heart from the back.

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

PT vs OT.  PTs or physical therapists focus primarily on the legs.  OT or occupational therapists focuses on the upper extremities.

X rays are used primarily for hard structures like bones and teeth.  Dyes help us see soft tissues.

MRI scans take about 45 minutes a shot.  MRI machines are often in another building or in the basement.

Ultrasound uses high frequency sound.  Is the safest technique, used to see babies.

Major organ systems of the body include the skeletal, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, lymphatic, nervous, integumetnary.  There are 9 systems.

Neuroanatomy is available because of its complexity.

There are 60 trillion tissue cells in the human body.  This is studied in cytology.  All living things begin life as a single cell.

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Embryology or prenatal development.  Zygote – birth – adult.  Development before birth is prenatal.  After birth its developmental anatomy.  Teratology is the study of birth defects or monsters.

Comparative anatomy compares different animals.  Pathological anatomy covers the anatomy of diseasees.  Patho means disease.

Anatomical position is with the body erect with the arms at the sides.  Palms will be turned forward.  Where is one part of the body releative to another?  This is the reference position

Superior/cranial – toward the hread, the heart is superior to the liver

Inferior/caudal – toward the tail.  The pelvis is inferior to the lungs.

Anterior/ventral – toward the front.  The trachea is anterior to the esophagus.  The trachea is the windpipe.  The esophagus is the foodtube.

Posterior/dorsal – toward the back.  The rectum is posterior to the urinary bladder.

Medial – toward the middle.

Lateral – toward the side.


Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple


Alkanes (50)


Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr -9

HI -10

NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+ (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

Catalysts: nickel, platinum, palladium

Markovnikov’s Rule: when an unsymmetrical alkene reacts with a hydrogen halide to give an alkyl halide, the hydrogen adds to the carbon of the alkene that has the greater number of hydrogen substituents, and the halogen to the carbon of the alkene with the fewer number of hydrogen substituents

Response to ambush: Lay down a base of fire, maneuver, indirect-fire support, and close-air support.

Plasma 4L

Interstitial Fluid 10L

Extracellular Volume 14L  Plasma + IF

Intracellular Volume 28L

Total Body Water 42L Plasma + IF + ICF

Vd = volume of distribution.  This is the hypothetical volume of fluid into which a drug is disseminated and prior to elimination.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma at T initial

rate of chemical reactions doubles for every 10 °C


pH = pK + log base/acid

k = A e^{{-E_a}/{RT}}

Alkyl Halide     SN1      SN2

3′                       common     rare

2′                      sometimes   sometimes (less reactive, harsher reaction)

1′                        rare           common

Methyl Halides    never    common (good electrophiles, mild conditions)

“A steady hand, good muscle control, and calm actions may be difficult to achieve when the natural tendency is to panic”

Cheekbone to cheekbone, the widest spot on the head, on an average man was five and three-quarter inches.

Carbocation Stability

3′ > 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

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