Home > Anatomy, Human Anatomy and Physiology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 2

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 2


Another glorious lecture from Dr Ratfink today.  This lecture is 42 minutes long.


Medial is toward the middle, the heart is medial to the lungs.

Cephalic means head.

Lateral is away from the mid line, the kidneys are lateral to the spine.

Proximal mean near to the torso, the arm is proximal to the hand.

distal means far from the torso, the fingers are distal to the elbow.

Superficial/external means toward the surface, the skin is superficial to the muscles

Deep/internal means away from the surface, the heart is deep to the rib cage

Limbs are appendages are extremities are arms and legs.  Later we might learn about the appendicular skeleton.

Parietal means the walls of a cavity, the parietal peritoneum is the layer covering the abdominal wall.  The membrane is shiny.

Visceral means the covering of an organ, the visceral peritoneum.  Usually refers to an internal organ.

Supine is on the back, supine condition for situps.

Prone is on the belly, prone position for pushups

Sectional Planes

The midsagital plane divides the body into left and right sections.

Frontal/coronal plane divides the body into the posterior/anterior sections.  An MRI yields a set of complete set of views.

Transverse/cross section divides the body into superior and inferior positions.

Major Body Cavities

Dorsal/Posterior – Cranial and Vertebral

Ventral/Coelom/Anterior – Thoractic/Pleural, Abdominal/Peritoneum, Pelvic.  Diaphragm separates the upper from the belly cavity.

Prefix             Meaning

Abdomino   abdomen

acro   extremity      acromegaly is enlarged hands/feet

adeno gland

anglo vessel

arthro joint

cardio    heart

condro cartilage

cysto bladder

cyto cell

dento tooth

dermato  skin

duodeno duodenum

gastro stomach

hepato liver

larynogo larynx

myo muscle

nephro  kidney

neuro nerve

osteo bone

oto ear

patho disease

pneumono lung

rhino nose

stomato mouth

thoraco thorax/chest


itis – inflamation

oma – tumor

Anatomic Parts of the Body

cephalic head

cranial skull

facial face

occular/orbital eye

bucal check

cervical neck

thorasic chest

mammary breast

axilary armpit

cubidal elbow a cupid is the distance between the elbow and the fingertips

front of elbow anticubidal good place to draw boo

brachial upper arm

forearm antibrachial

carpal wrist

palmar/volmar palm

pollux thumb

phalanges fingers

hand manual

front of knee pateller

lower leg crural

foot petal

hallux big toe

toes digits/phalanges

top of foot dorsal

tarsal ankle

cephalic head

back of head nuchal

back dorsal/posterior

back of hand dorso

buttocks gluttial

back of knee plapatial

sole of foot plantar

heel calcaneal

inguinal groin

belly button umbilical


Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple


Alkanes (50)


Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr -9

HI -10

NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+ (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

Catalysts: nickel, platinum, palladium

Markovnikov’s Rule: when an unsymmetrical alkene reacts with a hydrogen halide to give an alkyl halide, the hydrogen adds to the carbon of the alkene that has the greater number of hydrogen substituents, and the halogen to the carbon of the alkene with the fewer number of hydrogen substituents

Response to ambush: Lay down a base of fire, maneuver, indirect-fire support, and close-air support.

Plasma 4L

Interstitial Fluid 10L

Extracellular Volume 14L  Plasma + IF

Intracellular Volume 28L

Total Body Water 42L Plasma + IF + ICF

Vd = volume of distribution.  This is the hypothetical volume of fluid into which a drug is disseminated and prior to elimination.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma at T initial

rate of chemical reactions doubles for every 10 °C


pH = pK + log base/acid

k = A e^{{-E_a}/{RT}}

Alkyl Halide     SN1      SN2

3′                       common     rare

2′                      sometimes   sometimes (less reactive, harsher reaction)

1′                        rare           common

Methyl Halides    never    common (good electrophiles, mild conditions)

“A steady hand, good muscle control, and calm actions may be difficult to achieve when the natural tendency is to panic”

Cheekbone to cheekbone, the widest spot on the head, on an average man was five and three-quarter inches.

Carbocation Stability

3′ > 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

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