Home > histology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 5

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 5


Today is a very dense lecture on connective tissue lasting 34 minutes.  I am still trying to find a playlist that runs through all 140 lectures of Fink’s.



Types of tissue: nervous, muscular, epithelial, connective

All connective tissues develop from mesoderm.  Connective tissue consists of cells and intracellular matter secreted by the cells.  Connective tissue is in general highly vascular.

Classification is based on type of cells and type of intercellular matter.

Areolar (Loose)

Fibroblasts – principle cell type.  Secretes proteins into the spaces between cells

Macrophages – engulf foreign agents

Mast Cells – secrete histamine and other chemical mediators of inflation.  Histamine increases cell permeability so cells leak more.  Vessels dilate, proteins and water leak out.  The area will turn red.  This allows proteins to leak out, promoting healing.  Edema is swelling.

Collagen is very strong.

Elastin provides stretching ability.  Wiry, thin.

Inflammation is redness, warmth, swollen and pain.

Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the throat.  The bacteria is eating in the throat, injuring your body.  Histamine is released – swelling, warming, hurting and turning red.

Adipose connective tissue is the technical name for fat.  It looks like honeycomb.  The large vacuole holds fat.  Found under the skin, around the kidney and eyeballs, buttocks and breasts.

Dense fibrous : dense regular and dense irregular.  The collagen runs all in the same direction versus random directions.  One tissue is strong in a single direction, one is strong in many directions.  Tendons are made of dense fibrous.  Tendons attach muscles to bones.  Ligaments attach bones to bones.  Dura mater and periosteum are made of dense regular.  Dermis and scars are made of dense irregular.

As usual in anatomy classes, he requires them to ID the issue from a picture.

Epidermis is made of stratified squamous.  The dermis is made of dense irregular tissue.

Epidermis from ectoderm, dermis from dermatome.  On the inside of the cheek, the epidermis is mesoderm.

Cartilage is unusual connective tissue.  It has no blood vessels, which is why it heals slowly.  Made up of chondrocytes, surrounded by lacuna or a lake.

3 types are hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage.  Hyaline is found in bone tissue, the trachea, nose.  Fibrocarticalge is found in intervertebral disks.  Elastic cartilage is found in the ears.  Fibrocartilage is the second hardest material in the body after bones.


Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo  cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple


Alkanes (50) CH4/CH3-

Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr -9

HI -10

NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+ (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

Catalysts: nickel, platinum, palladium

Markovnikov’s Rule: when an unsymmetrical alkene reacts with a hydrogen halide to give an alkyl halide, the hydrogen adds to the carbon of the alkene that has the greater number of hydrogen substituents, and the halogen to the carbon of the alkene with the fewer number of hydrogen substituents

Response to ambush: Lay down a base of fire, maneuver, indirect-fire support, and close-air support.

Plasma 4L

Interstitial Fluid 10L

Extracellular Volume 14L  Plasma + IF

Intracellular Volume 28L

Total Body Water 42L Plasma + IF + ICF

Vd = volume of distribution.  This is the hypothetical volume of fluid into which a drug is disseminated and prior to elimination.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma at T initial

rate of chemical reactions doubles for every 10 °C


pH = pK + log base/acid

k = A e^{{-E_a}/{RT}}

Alkyl Halide     SN1      SN2

3′                       common     rare

2′                      sometimes   sometimes (less reactive, harsher reaction)

1′                        rare           common

Methyl Halides    never    common (good electrophiles, mild conditions)

“A steady hand, good muscle control, and calm actions may be difficult to achieve when the natural tendency is to panic”

Cheekbone to cheekbone, the widest spot on the head, on an average man was five and three-quarter inches.

Carbocation Stability

3′ > 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor
Modulation index  = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

  1. December 17, 2012 at 3:09 pm

    There’s very little filler in this class. I like it. Great notes as always, thank you.

  2. Ryu
    December 18, 2012 at 3:42 am

    I’m glad you’re enjoying it. I believe I’ll review this one today.

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