Home > Anatomy, histology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 6

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 6

Overview

Today is a 20 minute lecture on epithelial tissue.  Fink is doing his auctioneer impression so the lecture really moves.

Details

Histology is the study of tissues.

There are four types of tissues: epithelial, nervous, muscular, connective.  An organ is made up of two or more tissues.

There are no blood vessels in epithelial tissues, so they are always near connective, which is vascularized.

Simple is a single layer of cells.  Stratified has multiple levels of cells.

Columnar cells may have cilia or microvilli.  Cells with cillia move, microvilli increase surface area.

Simple squamous is the most common type of epithelial tissues.

Simple cuboidal is found in all the glands of the body.  Rolled up in the renal tubules of the kidney.

Simple columnar ciliated epithelium forms the canal of the oviducts.

Simple columnar with goblet cells

Simple columnar with microvilli and goblet cells are found.  Mucosal goblet cell coats the inside area of the stomach.

Pseudostratified epithelial cells with goblet.  Some cells are large, others are short; but there is only one layer there.  This forms the interior of the respiratory tract to push dust out of the lungs.

Transitional forms the interior lining of the urinary bladder. The shape of the cells change as it expands or contracts.

Stratified squamous mean multiple layers.  Areas subject to abrasion.  Non-keratinized and keratinized.  Non-keratinized because there are no dead cells, found in the oral cavity, anal and vaginal canal.  Keratinized means there are dead layers.  This is found in the outer epidermis.  The outside cells are dead because they are in contact with air.

Melanin in the skin looks brown.  Exists to shield UV rays.  Darkening of the skin is tanning.

Review

Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo  cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry

Nice-Manipulative-Assertive-Aggressive-Assaultive-Murderous

L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple

pKa’s:

Alkanes (50) CH4/CH3-

Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr -9

HI -10

NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+ (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

Catalysts: nickel, platinum, palladium

Markovnikov’s Rule: when an unsymmetrical alkene reacts with a hydrogen halide to give an alkyl halide, the hydrogen adds to the carbon of the alkene that has the greater number of hydrogen substituents, and the halogen to the carbon of the alkene with the fewer number of hydrogen substituents

Response to ambush: Lay down a base of fire, maneuver, indirect-fire support, and close-air support.

Plasma 4L

Interstitial Fluid 10L

Extracellular Volume 14L  Plasma + IF

Intracellular Volume 28L

Total Body Water 42L Plasma + IF + ICF

Vd = volume of distribution.  This is the hypothetical volume of fluid into which a drug is disseminated and prior to elimination.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma at T initial

rate of chemical reactions doubles for every 10 °C

HKBA

pH = pK + log base/acid

k = A e^{{-E_a}/{RT}}

Alkyl Halide     SN1      SN2

3′                       common     rare

2′                      sometimes   sometimes (less reactive, harsher reaction)

1′                        rare           common

Methyl Halides    never    common (good electrophiles, mild conditions)

“A steady hand, good muscle control, and calm actions may be difficult to achieve when the natural tendency is to panic”

Cheekbone to cheekbone, the widest spot on the head, on an average man was five and three-quarter inches.

Carbocation Stability

3′ > 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor
Modulation index  = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

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  1. December 20, 2012 at 12:40 am

    Much of this is familiar from Professor Diamond’s class. At 20 minutes, this makes a great review lecture.

  2. May 5, 2017 at 10:54 am

    Ridiculous story tһere. What occurred after? Taкᥱ care!

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