Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 7

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 7


Today is part two of the connective tissue lecture.  He covers lesser known connective tissue like bones and the blood.


Two minerals found in bone are calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate.  (PO4)2 is calcium phosphate.  CaCO3 is calcium carbonate.

Bone tissue is highly vascularized.  When you break a bone, it bleeds.  It is only capable of growing in width.

Two types: compact and spongy.

The osteocytes are arranged in concentric circles called Haversian systems.

Spongy osteocytes are in a spongy network.

There are two types of bone cells: Osteoblasts build, osteoclasts destroy.  There is a dynamic equilibrium occurring.

Electrolytes in the body are sodium potassium, magnesium and calcium.  ALl are important to normal functioning.

Menopause is implicated in bone weakness.  Drops in estrogen level slow down osteoblasts, causing bone loss.  Equilibrium has been lost.

It is much easier to learn the bones by holding them in your hands than by rote memorization.  Compact bone is very dense, high in calcium.  Most of the inside of the bone is porous or spongy.  This gives it strength.

The skeleton is an optimization; strong enough to protect us but not too heavy to impede mobility.

Types of bone are flat, long, irregular, short.  The femur is long.  The vertebra is irregular.  A phalange is short.  All the bones of the skull are flat.

Concentric rings are like tree rings.

He shows us the tibia.  The ends are the epiphesis.  The middle is the diaphesis.  Covering the outer surface is the periosteoum.  The neutrian foramen supplies the bone with blood.

Yellow marrow is adipose tissue.  Red marrow produces red blood cells.  The sternum, vertebra and the ribs produce blood cells, from the axial skeleton.

Ligaments connect bone to bone.  Tendons connect muscle to bone.

Intramembranous bone formation forms flat bones.  Long bones

Bones are connective tissues and all CT comes from mesoderm.  Hylain cartilage is formed.  In the middle, a prime ossification center forms.  An artery grows in the prime ossification center.  The ends of the bone undergo ossification, the secondary ossifcation centers.

Cartilage can grow in length and width.  The cartilage gets longer and ossifies.  Bone grows in width only.

Two hormones promote growth of hylain cartilage.  GH and testosterone.  GH comes from the pituitary.  The cartilage grows faster.  Test also promotes cartilage growth.

X rays pass through cartilage and appear darker.  Only children have epiphesial plates.  Epiphesial line is the absense.  A “line” is a plate.

Mesenchymal cells differentiate into fibroblasts secrete collagen protein into dense fibrous CT.

Fontainelles or soft spots in a baby head are fibrous CT.

Mesoderm to cartilage to bone is endochondral bone formation.

Mesoderm to fibrous CT is intramembranous bone formation.

Blood is made up of RBCs, WBCs, plasma and platelets.

Blood is mae of cells and fluid.  RBCs carry oxygen.  WBCs defend us against bad guys.

Plasma is water and proteins; intracellular matter.  Proteins are made by the liver.

A tumor or neoplasm is an abnormal growth.  They may be benign or malignent.  Benign stays in one place, you can cut it out.  Malignant is cancer which mestastizies and moving about.

Use surgery to remove primary site, use chemotherapy/radiation to hit secondary site.

Carcenomas are 85% and come from epithelial cells.

Leukemia comes from leukocytes or WBCs.

Sarcoma comes from the connective tissue.  Aka bone cancer is osteosarcoma.


Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo  cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous

  • single covalent bond – 1 shared pair
  • double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs
  • triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double < triple


Alkanes (50) CH4/CH3-

Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr -9

HI -10

NH3 38 L

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

H30+ (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

Spectroscopy: emission/absorption

A = e l c

IGL: point source, random motion, elastic collisions, high temp, low pressure

6 strong acids:

  • HCl
  • H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO4
  • HBr
  • HI

The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka, the weaker the conjugate base.

hydrogen helium

lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

sodium magnesium aluminum silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon

potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton

rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technicium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium antimony tin tellurium iodine xenon

cesium barium lutium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon

SWAT – snipers, entry team, inner perimeter/gas people

AOR = area of responsibility

Catalysts: nickel, platinum, palladium

Markovnikov’s Rule: when an unsymmetrical alkene reacts with a hydrogen halide to give an alkyl halide, the hydrogen adds to the carbon of the alkene that has the greater number of hydrogen substituents, and the halogen to the carbon of the alkene with the fewer number of hydrogen substituents

Response to ambush: Lay down a base of fire, maneuver, indirect-fire support, and close-air support.

Plasma 4L

Interstitial Fluid 10L

Extracellular Volume 14L  Plasma + IF

Intracellular Volume 28L

Total Body Water 42L Plasma + IF + ICF

Vd = volume of distribution.  This is the hypothetical volume of fluid into which a drug is disseminated and prior to elimination.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma at T initial

rate of chemical reactions doubles for every 10 °C


pH = pK + log base/acid

k = A e^{{-E_a}/{RT}}

Alkyl Halide     SN1      SN2

3′                       common     rare

2′                      sometimes   sometimes (less reactive, harsher reaction)

1′                        rare           common

Methyl Halides    never    common (good electrophiles, mild conditions)

“A steady hand, good muscle control, and calm actions may be difficult to achieve when the natural tendency is to panic”

Cheekbone to cheekbone, the widest spot on the head, on an average man was five and three-quarter inches.

Carbocation Stability

3′ > 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage 

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor
Modulation index  = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

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