Home > Biology, Chemistry, Human Anatomy and Physiology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 9

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 9


Today is a 42 minute review of carbohydrates and lipids.



5 carbon sugars are for storage, as in RNA and DNA.  Ribose and deoxyribose.

6 carbon sugars are used for energy – glucose, fructose and galactose.  Chemical isomers.

Dehydration synthesis reactions lose water and join monomers.

Hydrolysis – water to break apart – produce water and break bonds.

Making bonds releases energy, breaking bonds costs energy, from regular chemistry.

sucrose – glucose + fructose

lactose = glucose + galactose

galactose = glucose + glucose

Polysaccharides are polymers of glucose – CxH2xOx.

Starch/amylase.  Plants store glucose as a polysaccharide called starch – potatoes, rice, corn, bread.  Animals do not have starch.

Cellulose makes up the cell walls of plants.  It’s the site of water insoluble fiber in diet.  We cannot digest cellulose and it passes out of the stool.  It’s less obvious in adults, but you can see this easily in kids.

Lack of fiber weakens and thins the walls of the digestive tract.  This is called diaparticulosis.  The large intestine can protrude and become infected.  The intestinal tract has smooth muscle with peristaltic contractions that move food along.  This makes the muscles work.  The muscle can atrophy.

Animals store glucose as glycogen.  Animal starch.  It’s stored mostly in the liver cells as liver glycogen.  Also in the skeletal muscles as muscle glycogen.

Water and salt are the only two things in our bodies that didn’t come from living things.


…are hydrophobic, non polar and insoluble in water.  Contain more stored energy than any organic molecule (9 kcal/gram).  Fatty acids have a carboxylic acid group on the end, COOH.

Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogens.  Solid at room temperature.  Synthesized in animals.  Butter, lard, tallow

Unsaturated acids have at least one double bond.  Liquid at room temperature.  Vegetable oils are mostly unsaturated.  Olive oil, canola oil.

The saturated C-H bond has more energy than any C-O, C=O bond.

Plaque is a fat on the inner walls of the arteries made up of saturated fat and cholesterol.  Increases risk of blood clots.  Number one cause of death is heart attack; a stroke is a blood clot in the brain.

Fat        Saturated    Unsaturated

Corn Oil           13     87

Butterfat         66 34

Coconut Oil   92   8

Beef Tallow     52   48

Tropical oils include coconut oil and palm kernal oil.  They taste the best.  Non dairy creamers and non dairy ice creams are made from these.  No cholesterol in plant oils.

We need unsaturated fatty acids in our diets.

Unsaturated fats can be easily converted into saturated fats to increase storability.  This is hydrogenation.  No healthier than butter itself.


Pre-emphasizer – for high freq

Process gain = spread/unspread

Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH

Magazine Changes:

Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment

Tactical – getting low and need to top off

Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot

MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity

Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor

Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

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