Home > Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Part 10

Introduction to Human Anatomy Part 10


Today is a 41 minute review of proteins.



Proteins consist of chains of 100 or more amino acids linked together in a precise arrangement.

polypeptide chain – (folding/denaturing) – protein (functional)


Denaturing of proteins = loss of consciousness, coma, death

Proteins are denatured by heat, cold, acidosis, alkylosis, and heavy metals

There are 20 different amino acids.  They differ in their R groups.  Most AAs end with “ine.”




Amino acids are joined by dehydration synthesis reactions.  Water is given off.

Our cells can create essential AAs into non-essential AAs.

Proteins differ by:

number of AAs

Type of AAs in the chain

order of AAs

cooiling of chain

Levels of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary

Nature’s most perfect food is the egg.  It has most of the essential AAs.  Vegetarians must balance meals with various AAs.

Enzymes are the most important of all proteins.  They catalyze or initiate chemical reactions.

Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Coenzymes are vitamins and minerals.  They are necessary for the enzyme to catalyze reactions.

There is the lock and key model and the induced fit model.  Enzymes attach to substrates.  The induced fit model requires that the substrate cause a change of confirmation of the enzyme so that it “hugs” the substrate, initiating the reactions.

Protein Hormones

…a chemical that affects your body by circulating in the blood.  A long distance mediator.  Steroids made from cholesterol and steroids made from amino acids.  Steroids are not broken up by the digestive system; protein based hormones cannot be taken orally.

Insulin lowers blood sugar level by providing the transport of glucose into the cells.  Produced by the beta cells of the pancreas.  The pancreas is an endocrine and an exocrine gland.  Alpha cells secrete glucagon.  Liver and muscle cells absorb sugars as glycogen.  100 mg/dL is “normal.”

Growth hormone (GH) comes from the pituitary gland.  Like insulin, its a protein based hormone.

Oxytocin comes from the pituitary.  Causes labor contractions.

Immunoglobulins/antibodies are proteins.  Any “globin” is a protein.  Produced by B lymphocytes.

Enzyme Inhibitors

Chemicals preventing a substrate from attaching to an enzyme

Cyanide.  attaches to cytochrome oxidase and prevents ATP production

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor interferes with an enzyme in the nervous system and causes muscle paralysis.

Examples of Enzyme Inhibitors used in Medicine

1) Antibiotics inhibit bacterial enzymes.  Prokaryotes have different metabolisms and cellular structure from eukaryotes.

2) Asprin and advil inhibit conversion from phosopholipids to prostaglandins.  Prostaglandins promote inflammation.

3) Lipitor and other statins inhibit the enzyme responsible for the conversion of fatty acid into cholesterol


Pre-emphasizer – for high freq

 C =  B log_2 left( 1+frac{S}{N} right)

Snubber – resister and capacity in series

Process gain = spread/unspread

Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH

Magazine Changes:

Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment

Tactical – getting low and need to top off

Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot

MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity

Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor

Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

  1. January 8, 2013 at 10:21 am

    the functions of lipids helps in including energy storage and building up structural components of cell membranes… the Dehydration Synthesis process reduces the water content in the body…

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