Home > Biology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 13

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 13


Today is a 45 minute jobber on fever, inflammation and anti-pyretics.



Fever is characterized by higher temperature than normal.

Inflammation is caused by injured cells and WBCs releasing chemicals called cytokines causing inflammations.  Histamine,

Cells release these chemicals by injury, microbial infection (eating you), viruses (lysis),  physical trauma, radiation, ischemia or lack of oxygen, allergens.

HIV attacks CD4 cells and T cells.

Without oxygen, cells can only generate a small amount of ATP through glycolysis.

An allergy is an innocuous foreign agent that the immune system is mistaken about.

The chemical mediator of inflammation primarily affect local areas.  Leukocytic pyrogen and prostaglandines are carried in the blood to the brain, affecting neurons controlling thermoregulation, reflexes, causing fever.  Interleukin 1 is another name for leukocytic pyrogen.

The inflammation response is a non specific response.  It serves to isolate and destroy noxious agents and prepare the tissues for healing.


local vasodialation which increases local blood flow to the areas.  This causes redness.  Increase local capillary permeability increases the movement of antibody proteins out of the bloodstream.  Swelling.  Draws the water out of the cells through osmolarity.

Activate local pain sensors.  Prostaglandins and kinins.

Attract WBCs to the injury and activate phagocytosis.  Called chemotaxis.  Especially neutrophils or small phagocytes.  Monocytes are macrophages.

Affect the activity of the TRC and fever.  Leukocytic pyrogen and prostoglandings act hypothalamic neurons cause increase in thermal set point.

With the onset of fever, the more you shiver, the higher the body temperature becomes.  There are no drugs against viruses.

Breaking your fever is sweating so much your sheets are soaked.  Healing cells stop releasing chemicals.  Thermostat set point normalizes.  Activation of cooling mechanisms.

The Use of Aspirin and Anti Pyrretic Agents

anti pyretic reduces fever

analgesic alga means pain

anti inflammatory NSAID

blocks synthesis and release of prostaglandins from injured tissue cells (COX inhibitor)

Prostoglandins and interleukin 1 raise the set point.

Fevers increase WBC production, antibodies and interferons.  Low grade fever is <101 F.  High grade fever is >101 F.  Too high and proteins denature.  Infants have the highest fevers and their nervous system is immature.

PMN chemotaxis – leuko C5a interleukin 6, bacterial products

Pain brady kinin, prostaglandins

Fever interleukin 1 and prostaglandins


Capacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2

V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}

Power factor =real power/apparent power

“ELI the ICE man”

alpha_F = frac{I_{text{C}}}{I_{text{E}}}

beta_F = frac{I_{text{C}}}{I_{text{B}}}
Pre-emphasizer – for high freq 

 C =  B log_2 left( 1+frac{S}{N} right)

Snubber – resister and capacity in series

Process gain = spread/unspread

Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH

Magazine Changes:

Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment

Tactical – getting low and need to top off

Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot

MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity

Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor

Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature  =-174 dBm/Hz
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