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Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 15 Notes


Today is a 53 minute lecture on mitosis and the cell cycle.


Here is Ratfink’s site again:



The first human cell is the zygote, formed by the fusion of two gametes.  Each gamete contributes 23 chromosomes, the haploid number.

Mitosis = PMAT – prophase, metaphase, anaphase, teleophase – appear, middle, apart, together

Mitosis is when a somatic or body cell divides into two genetically identical somatic cells.  All cells in the body are genetically the same.  Meisis is the replication of sex cells.  Mitosis is how we recover from injury.  The more specialized the cell, the less frequently it divides – muscles cannot divide, skin cells divide all the time, nervous cells cannot divide.  Bodybuilders grow through hypertrophy, not hyperplasia.

Stroke means the death of heart muscle.

DNA is found as chromatin.  Usually its in an uncoiled confirmation.  DNA replication doubles the amount of DNA in the nucleus.  During transcription, chromatin is coiled.

When the cytoplasm and the nuclus divide, karyokinesis and cytokenisis.

When only the nuclus divides, karyokinesis.  Karyo means nucleus.  All skeletal muscle are multinucleated.

G1 46 1st period of cellular growth interphase, S 46 DNA synthesis, G1 92, Mitosis 46 x 2.

Interphase or mitosis.  Most of the time is spent in interphase.  G1, S, G2.

The Cell Cycle: Go, G1, S, G2, M.

Centrioles are made up of microtubules.  There are 9 sets, 9+0.

Prophase is the most complicated portion.  The mitotic apparatus forms.  Spindle fibers.  Chromatids coil up and become visible.

Metaphase, the chromatids are lined up on the equator.

Anaphase the chromatids move apart to opposite poles of the cell.  Called karyokinesis or the movement of the nucleus.

Teleophase termination.  Cleavage formed.  Chromatin uncoils.  Nuclear envelope reforms.  Cytokinesis.

Now we have two genetically identical cells.  2 daughter cells in interphase.

This is important for cancer research, brain cell differentiation, replacing dead heart cells.

IPMAT interphase prophase metaphase anaphase telophase


<br />
frac{V_text{s}}{V_{text{p}}} = frac{N_text{s}}{N_text{p}}<br />

Thyristor/SCR – gate, anode, cathode, one direction

Triac – bidirectional

Hardware random number generator: Transducer, amplifier, ADC

Power conversion:

The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power

The minimum discernible signalCapacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2

<br /><br /><br />
V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}<br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br />
<p>Power factor =real power/apparent power</p><br /><br />
<p>“ELI the ICE man”</p><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br />
<dl><br />
<dd><img src=

Pre-emphasizer – for high freq

 C =  B log_2 left( 1+frac{S}{N} right)

Snubber – resister and capacity in series

Process gain = spread/unspread

Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH

Magazine Changes:

Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment

Tactical – getting low and need to top off

Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot

MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity

Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry


L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor

Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature  =-174 dBm/Hz
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