Home > Biology, Chemistry, Human Anatomy and Physiology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 18 Notes

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 18 Notes

Overview

Today we will be spending 22 minutes on prostaglandins and lipids.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=poQMbp1JO1w&feature=BFa&list=PLC6D7C1C96F601C82

Details

We require unsaturated fatty acids in our diet as EFAs or essential fatty acids.  Plants are a source of EFAs.

Prostaglandinds ie eicosanoids.  Prostaglandins have a 5 membered ring with 2 long fatty acid tails.  They were first discovered in the prostate gland in the 60s.  They are released from injured cells promoting inflammation.

Inflammation leads to redness, warming, swelling and pain.  Aka non-specific immune response.

During injury, the cell membrane and phosolipids are disrupted.  Phospholipase is activated, converting phosolipids into prostaglandins.

Lipids in Blood       Normal Range

Free Fatty Acids     6-16 mg/100 ml

Triglycerides                  80-120

Phospholipids          123-390

Cholesterol              107-320

Total Lipids                   360-820

Strep throat is a bacterial infection.  The bacteria eat your throat cells.

Aspirin and advil block the conversion called anti-inflammatory drug.

There are three types of arthritis – osteo, rheumatoid, gouty.  Chronic inflammation of the joints.

NSAID non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug.  Aspirin and advil are NSAIDs.  Ibuprofin.  Prevent prostaglandin formation.  Used when a joint is repeatedly injured and inflammation is ineffective.

Mono/di/tri-glycerides have the formula (C3) (FA1)(FA2)(FA2).  Triacylglycerol.  This is how fat is stored in fat cells or adipocytes.  The vacoule holds the fat.  The following reaction goes both forward and backward:

Triglycerides = Glycerol + Fatty Acids

Dehydration synthesis joins molecules together.  Water is consumed during the reaction.  Add water to break them apart in a hydrolysis reaction.

Phospholipids have the formula( PO4)(C3)(FA1)( FA2).  PO4 is hydrophillic with a negative charge.  Phospholipids make up cell membranes.  One part is hydrophillic, one is hydrophobic; amphipathic molecules.

A cell membrane is made of a bilayer of phospholipids, head to tail tail to head.

Steroids

Cholesterol is present in our diet and can be made in the liver from saturated fatty acids.

Cholesterol is used by cells to make steroid hormones.  Statins and drugs like lipitor inhibit the enzyme converting saturated fats into cholesterol.

Androgens are chemicals in the bloodstream that affect the activity of a cell

Testerosterone from the testis.  Andrenal androgens like DHEA from adrenal glands.

Steroids increase anabolic growth reaction of bones and muscle, increase catabolic reactions of metabolism, increase hair growth, increase libido.

The parent steroid of them all is cholesterol.  Female sex hormones include estrogen and progesterone.

Review

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Flip Flops: SR, JK, D, T

Z = R + jX,

H = (4 * Pi * #Turns * #Turns * coil Area * mu) / (coil Length * 10,000,000)

<br /><br /><br /><br />
frac{V_text{s}}{V_{text{p}}} = frac{N_text{s}}{N_text{p}}<br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br />
<p>Thyristor/SCR – gate, anode, cathode, one direction</p><br /><br />
<p>Triac – bidirectional</p><br /><br />
<p>Hardware random number generator: Transducer, amplifier, ADC</p><br /><br />
<p>Power conversion:</p><br /><br />
<p>The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power</p><br /><br />
<ul><br /><br />
<li>AC to DC (<a title=” />rectifier)</p>
<ul>
<li>DC to AC (<a title=inverter)

MDS
The minimum discernible signalCapacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power factor =real power/apparent power</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>“ELI the ICE man”</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dl><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dd><img src=” /></p><br /><br />
<p>Pre-emphasizer – for high freq</p><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p>
<p>Snubber – resister and capacity in series</p>
<p>Process gain = spread/unspread</p>
<p>Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH</p>
<p>Magazine Changes:</p>
<p>Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment</p>
<p>Tactical – getting low and need to top off</p>
<p>Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot</p>
<p>MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity</p>
<p>Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF</p>
<p>Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.</p>
<p>Internal/external/terminal ballistics</p>
<p>Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries</p>
<p>Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective</p>
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous</p>
<p>Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons</p>
<p>CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554</p>
<p>Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata</p>
<p>Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem</p>
<p>Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin</p>
<p>Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater</p>
<p>X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)</p>
<p>Ambush – deploy, suppress, report</p>
<p>n1sin01 = n2sin02</p>
<p>SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry</p>
<p>Nice-Manipulative-Assertive-Aggressive-Assaultive-Murderous</p>
<p>L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature</p>
<p>Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action</p>
<p>Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat</p>
<p>A = a l c</p>
<p>Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr</p>
<p>Alkane CnH2n+2</p>
<p>Alkene CnH2n</p>
<p>Alkyne CnH2n-2</p>
<p>Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8</p>
<p>Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon</p>
<p>When not moving: herring bone and coil</p>
<p>Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch</p>
<p>breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy</p>
<p>Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs</p>
<p>One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.</p>
<p>Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd</p>
<p>Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5</p>
<p>PV = nRT</p>
<p>METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians</p>
<p>SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment</p>
<p>2s 6p 10d 14f</p>
<p>KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy</p>
<p>Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular</p>
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs</p>
<p>Bond energy: single < double < triple</p>
<p>Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+</p>
<p>MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM</p>
<p>Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2</p>
<p>diameter in mm X length in mm</p>
<p>caliber = diameter in mm/25.4</p>
<p>supine situps, prone pushups</p>
<p>Silence is golden</p>
<p>One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage</p>
<p>How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor</p>
<p>Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy</p>
<p>gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound</p>
<p>Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L</p>
<p>Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L</p>
<p>Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect</p>
<table cellspacing=
The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature  =-174 dBm/Hz

Major Functional Areas:

Brainstem – midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Cerebellum

Hypothalamus

Thalamus (reticular activation system – waking center)

Cerebrum – limbic system (emotions), basal ganglia (subcortical nuclei), cerebral cortex

The 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves

Most are mixed nerves.  Most emerge from the brainstem.

Spinal nerves have 4 types of wires: somatic sensory, visceral sensory, autonomic neurons, somatic motor.

On Old Olympus’s Towering Top, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops

Some Say Marry Money, But My Big Brother Say Business Makes Money

Autonomic motor neurons control the salivary glands.

1 Olfactory – somatic sensory – sense of smell.

2 Optic – somatic sensory – sense of sight.

3 Occulomotor – somatic motor/autonomic motor.  Voluntary control of eye muscles.  Automatic control of pupil diameter.  Pigmented muscle – iris.

4 Trochlear – somatic motor.

5 Trigeminal – somatic sensory/motor. – the most important cranial nerve in dentistry.  Sensation from face and all the teeth.  Mastication.  3 branches.

6 Abducens – somatic motor.  Control lateral rectus.

7  Facial – 3/4.  Taste from tongue.  Contraction of facial muscles.

8 Vestibulocochlear – somatic sensory.  Like 1 and 2.  Sense of hearing and balance.  Cochlea, vestibular apparatus.

9 Glossopharnogeal – means tongue/throat.  Only nerve that is like a spinal nerve.  Has all 4 types of wires.  Taste.  Somatic because one is conscious of it.

10 Vagus –  both.  The largest cranial nerves.  Visceral sensory, somatic motor, autonomic motor.  We don’t feel it.  Internal organs.

11 Accessory – motor.  Larynx, neck and traps muscles.

12  Hypoglossal   -Motor.  Under the tongue.  Propriosection from the tongue.  Injury, can’t move tongue or feel it.

Local anesthetics block nerve conduction in a particular area.

Viral infection of the facial nerve is Bell’s palsy.

Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure.

Review

MDS
The minimum discernible signalCapacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2 

<br /><br /><br /><br />
V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}<br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power factor =real power/apparent power</p><br /><br /><br />
<p>“ELI the ICE man”</p><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br /><br />
<dl><br /><br />
<dd><img src=” /></p>
<p>Pre-emphasizer – for high freq</p>
<p><img src=

Snubber – resister and capacity in series

Process gain = spread/unspread

Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH

Magazine Changes:

Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment

Tactical – getting low and need to top off

Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot

MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity

Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF

Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.

Internal/external/terminal ballistics

Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries

Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons

CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin

Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater

X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)

Ambush – deploy, suppress, report

n1sin01 = n2sin02

SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry

Nice-Manipulative-Assertive-Aggressive-Assaultive-Murderous

L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature

Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action

Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat

A = a l c

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Alkane CnH2n+2

Alkene CnH2n

Alkyne CnH2n-2

Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8

Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon

When not moving: herring bone and coil

Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch

breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy

Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs

One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.

Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd

Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5

PV = nRT

METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians

SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment

2s 6p 10d 14f

KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy

Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs

Bond energy: single < double < triple

Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+

MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM

Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2

diameter in mm X length in mm

caliber = diameter in mm/25.4

supine situps, prone pushups

Silence is golden

One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage

How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor

Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy

gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound

Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L

Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L

Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect

The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature  =-174 dBm/Hz
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