Home > Biology, Chemistry, Human Anatomy and Physiology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 18 Notes

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 18 Notes

Overview

Today is a 53 minute lecture on the joints.

 

 

Details

Arthro means joint or articulation.

Types of joints – fibrous connective, cartilaginous, synovial

Functional Classifications

synarthrotic –  no movement

amphiaarthotic – slight

diarthrosis- movement

Dense irregular fibrous CT/No to slight movement between bones

Suture no movement

Syndesasols membrane , radius ulna

Gompohosis tooth and the socket periodontal

Cartilaginoius joints no to slight movement

I’m here to answer questions, you’re here to study…

synchondrosis  cartilage

sternal coastal joints

symphorsis fibrocarticage vertebral joints shock absorbers disks flatten half an inch

Strovial joints

synovial membrane is vascularized

Ligaments fibrous capsule

Rapid change in pressure – popping.  Popping joints may enlarge them over time.

There is a stability/flexibility tradeoff.

Types of Movements at Synovial Joints

flexion – decrease joint angle, bending

extension – increase joint angle, straightening

dorsifexion – point toes up

plantarflexion- point toes down

adduction – move toward the body

abduction – move away from the body.  Abduction means taking away.  Spread fingers apart.

circumduction – make a full circle.  Hip and shoulder.  Ball and socket joint.

lateral rotation – outward rotation.  Neck.

medial rotation – inward rotation

supination – lateral rotation of the forearm.  Soup.

pronation – medial rotation of the forearm

eversion – turn foot laterally.  Walking we turn out feet.  Pigeon toed.

inversion – turn foot medially

Protraction – stick out

Retraction – pull in.

A protractor is a stick.

Elevation – raise up

Depression –  to lower.  Jaw.

Review

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Flip Flops: SR, JK, D, T

Z = R + jX,

H = (4 * Pi * #Turns * #Turns * coil Area * mu) / (coil Length * 10,000,000)

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
frac{V_text{s}}{V_{text{p}}} = frac{N_text{s}}{N_text{p}}<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br />
<p>Thyristor/SCR – gate, anode, cathode, one direction</p><br /><br /><br />
<p>Triac – bidirectional</p><br /><br /><br />
<p>Hardware random number generator: Transducer, amplifier, ADC</p><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power conversion:</p><br /><br /><br />
<p>The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power</p><br /><br /><br />
<ul><br /><br /><br />
<li>AC to DC (<a title=” />rectifier)</p><br />
<ul><br />
<li>DC to AC (<a title=” />inverter)</p>
<ul>
<li>DC to DC (<a title=DC-to-DC converter)

MDS
The minimum discernible signalCapacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power factor =real power/apparent power</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>“ELI the ICE man”</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dl><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dd><img src=” /></p><br /><br /><br />
<p>Pre-emphasizer – for high freq</p><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br />
<p>Snubber – resister and capacity in series</p><br />
<p>Process gain = spread/unspread</p><br />
<p>Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH</p><br />
<p>Magazine Changes:</p><br />
<p>Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment</p><br />
<p>Tactical – getting low and need to top off</p><br />
<p>Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot</p><br />
<p>MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity</p><br />
<p>Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF</p><br />
<p>Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.</p><br />
<p>Internal/external/terminal ballistics</p><br />
<p>Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries</p><br />
<p>Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective</p><br />
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous</p><br />
<p>Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons</p><br />
<p>CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554</p><br />
<p>Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata</p><br />
<p>Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem</p><br />
<p>Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin</p><br />
<p>Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater</p><br />
<p>X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)</p><br />
<p>Ambush – deploy, suppress, report</p><br />
<p>n1sin01 = n2sin02</p><br />
<p>SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry</p><br />
<p>Nice-Manipulative-Assertive-Aggressive-Assaultive-Murderous</p><br />
<p>L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature</p><br />
<p>Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action</p><br />
<p>Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat</p><br />
<p>A = a l c</p><br />
<p>Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr</p><br />
<p>Alkane CnH2n+2</p><br />
<p>Alkene CnH2n</p><br />
<p>Alkyne CnH2n-2</p><br />
<p>Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8</p><br />
<p>Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon</p><br />
<p>When not moving: herring bone and coil</p><br />
<p>Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch</p><br />
<p>breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy</p><br />
<p>Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs</p><br />
<p>One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.</p><br />
<p>Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd</p><br />
<p>Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5</p><br />
<p>PV = nRT</p><br />
<p>METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians</p><br />
<p>SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment</p><br />
<p>2s 6p 10d 14f</p><br />
<p>KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy</p><br />
<p>Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular</p><br />
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs</p><br />
<p>Bond energy: single < double < triple</p><br />
<p>Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+</p><br />
<p>MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM</p><br />
<p>Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2</p><br />
<p>diameter in mm X length in mm</p><br />
<p>caliber = diameter in mm/25.4</p><br />
<p>supine situps, prone pushups</p><br />
<p>Silence is golden</p><br />
<p>One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage</p><br />
<p>How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor</p><br />
<p>Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy</p><br />
<p>gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound</p><br />
<p>Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L</p><br />
<p>Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L</p><br />
<p>Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect</p><br />
<table cellspacing=” /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan=
The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature  =-174 dBm/Hz

Major Functional Areas:

Brainstem – midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Cerebellum

Hypothalamus

Thalamus (reticular activation system – waking center)

Cerebrum – limbic system (emotions), basal ganglia (subcortical nuclei), cerebral cortex

The 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves

Most are mixed nerves.  Most emerge from the brainstem.

Spinal nerves have 4 types of wires: somatic sensory, visceral sensory, autonomic neurons, somatic motor.

On Old Olympus’s Towering Top, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops

Some Say Marry Money, But My Big Brother Say Business Makes Money

Autonomic motor neurons control the salivary glands.

1 Olfactory – somatic sensory – sense of smell.

2 Optic – somatic sensory – sense of sight.

3 Occulomotor – somatic motor/autonomic motor.  Voluntary control of eye muscles.  Automatic control of pupil diameter.  Pigmented muscle – iris.

4 Trochlear – somatic motor.

5 Trigeminal – somatic sensory/motor. – the most important cranial nerve in dentistry.  Sensation from face and all the teeth.  Mastication.  3 branches.

6 Abducens – somatic motor.  Control lateral rectus.

7  Facial – 3/4.  Taste from tongue.  Contraction of facial muscles.

8 Vestibulocochlear – somatic sensory.  Like 1 and 2.  Sense of hearing and balance.  Cochlea, vestibular apparatus.

9 Glossopharnogeal – means tongue/throat.  Only nerve that is like a spinal nerve.  Has all 4 types of wires.  Taste.  Somatic because one is conscious of it.

10 Vagus –  both.  The largest cranial nerves.  Visceral sensory, somatic motor, autonomic motor.  We don’t feel it.  Internal organs.

11 Accessory – motor.  Larynx, neck and traps muscles.

12  Hypoglossal   -Motor.  Under the tongue.  Propriosection from the tongue.  Injury, can’t move tongue or feel it.

Local anesthetics block nerve conduction in a particular area.

Viral infection of the facial nerve is Bell’s palsy.

Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure.

Review

MDS
The minimum discernible signalCapacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2 

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power factor =real power/apparent power</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>“ELI the ICE man”</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br /><br /><br />
<dl><br /><br /><br />
<dd><img src=” /></p><br />
<p>Pre-emphasizer – for high freq</p><br />
<p><img src=” /></p>
<p>Snubber – resister and capacity in series</p>
<p>Process gain = spread/unspread</p>
<p>Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH</p>
<p>Magazine Changes:</p>
<p>Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment</p>
<p>Tactical – getting low and need to top off</p>
<p>Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot</p>
<p>MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity</p>
<p>Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF</p>
<p>Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.</p>
<p>Internal/external/terminal ballistics</p>
<p>Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries</p>
<p>Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective</p>
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous</p>
<p>Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons</p>
<p>CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554</p>
<p>Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata</p>
<p>Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem</p>
<p>Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin</p>
<p>Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater</p>
<p>X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)</p>
<p>Ambush – deploy, suppress, report</p>
<p>n1sin01 = n2sin02</p>
<p>SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry</p>
<p>Nice-Manipulative-Assertive-Aggressive-Assaultive-Murderous</p>
<p>L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature</p>
<p>Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action</p>
<p>Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat</p>
<p>A = a l c</p>
<p>Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr</p>
<p>Alkane CnH2n+2</p>
<p>Alkene CnH2n</p>
<p>Alkyne CnH2n-2</p>
<p>Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8</p>
<p>Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon</p>
<p>When not moving: herring bone and coil</p>
<p>Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch</p>
<p>breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy</p>
<p>Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs</p>
<p>One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.</p>
<p>Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd</p>
<p>Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5</p>
<p>PV = nRT</p>
<p>METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians</p>
<p>SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment</p>
<p>2s 6p 10d 14f</p>
<p>KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy</p>
<p>Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular</p>
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs</p>
<p>Bond energy: single < double < triple</p>
<p>Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+</p>
<p>MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM</p>
<p>Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2</p>
<p>diameter in mm X length in mm</p>
<p>caliber = diameter in mm/25.4</p>
<p>supine situps, prone pushups</p>
<p>Silence is golden</p>
<p>One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage</p>
<p>How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor</p>
<p>Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy</p>
<p>gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound</p>
<p>Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L</p>
<p>Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L</p>
<p>Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect</p>
<table cellspacing=

The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature  =-174 dBm/Hz
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  1. December 19, 2012 at 12:44 am

    WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN ANATOMY IN MEDICAL IMAGING

    • Ryu
      December 19, 2012 at 1:01 am

      LOL this sounds like an essay question on a homework problem. The importance is that you need to know what “normal” looks like and what diseases or abnormal looks like.

  2. January 7, 2013 at 6:20 am

    Back to purpose games for practice identifying types of joints http://www.purposegames.com/search?q=joints

    • Ryu
      January 7, 2013 at 8:07 am

      Thanks! I haven’t been there in some time. I’m sure I’ve made some errors in which videos I show. Feel free to go in an change anything you find wrong Larry.

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