Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 18 Notes

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 18 Notes


Part 2 is a 50 minute lecture finishing arthrology.

We’ll put tomorrow’s lecture here to remember it:



4 Types of Synovial Joints:

Limited movement synovial joint: wrist, carpels

Uniaxial movement: most common of all synovial joints.  Knee, elbow.

Knee is the largest joint in the body, most complex, most injured.  The tibia is medial, the fibula is lateral.  The femur only articulates with the tibia.  Ligaments in the center.  Anterior cruciate ligament in the front; frequently torn.  Posterior cruciate ligament in back.

Pads of fibrocartilage called menisci.  Tearing the medial meniscus is common.  “Torn cartilage.”  Medial collateral ligament.  The problem for the knee is that it needs to be flexible, but strong enough to hold the weight of the body.  Stability versus flexibility.

Sharp pivots tend to cause injuries.

3 most common knee injuries in order: torn ACL, torn medial meniscus, torn medial collateral ligament.  Most injuries occur on the medial side.  Use cadaver ligament to fix.

The meniscus is a cushion between the femur and the tibia.  Improves bone fit.  Water on the knee is a buildup of synovial fluid.

Pivot joint.  Atlas axis.  Medial and lateral rotation.

The bi axial synovial joints.  Wrist, TMJ.  Palm into chin, dislocate their jaw.

Multiaxial synovial joints.  Shoulder joint.

Once again, the teacher looks at pathologies.  A sprain in an injured ligament; sprained ankle.  Walking with inversion causes it.  Dislocation is a seperation of the bones.

Arthritis: rheumatioid, gouty, osteo.  Inflammation of the joints.  Rheumatoid is an autoimmune disease, more common in women.  Gout is a metabolic disorder, uric acid.  Osteoarthritis is due to repeated injury/trauma.

A bursa is a fluid filled sac.  Shoulder bursitis is common.

Inflammation is redness, swelling, pain.

Tendons are muscles connected to bones

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