Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 20 Notes – Vision

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 20 Notes – Vision

Overview

Today is a 28 minute lecture on vision.

Details

Layers of the Eye:

fibrous layer: cornea, sclera

Vascular Layer: choroid, iris, ciliary body, pupil

sensory Layer – retina

The pupil is a hole through which rays of light go.  The iris is a muscle that can contract or relax; it’s also pigmented.  The outer part of the eye is the sclera.  The wall of the eye made of the sclera, choroid, and the retina.

The choroid plexus forms cerebral fluid.  Highly vascularized.

The fovea centralis is full of cones.  Cones see color, rods see black and white.  This is where the light rays focus.

In the rods, the name is the rhodopsin.  It is activated by light, a photochemical reaction.  It’s a protein plus retinal or vitamin A.  Night blindness results from lack of vitamin A.

Rods and cones connect to bipolar neurons then to amacrine neurons to ganglion neurons to sensory neurons.  The retina of the eye is a bit complicated.

Cone photoreceptors can be red, blue or green.  Iodopsins are the proper chemical name.  Cones give us resolution.

Aqueous humor in front, vitreous humor in back.

Pixels creates the color picture on a TV.  By lighting up different combinations and intensities, different colors are represented.

Colorblindness is a genetic disorder.  They lack some photoreceptors.  Commonly, green or red is missing.

Most of the colorblind are male.  It is a sex linked trait, XY versus XX.  One X from ma, one X from pa.  A woman needs a defect in both X’s.  A man needs a defect only in one X.

Very few species see in colors.  Dogs and cats don’t.  They don’t have cone photoreceptors.

The occipital lobe is the primary visual center.  Sensory information goes through the thalamus.    The optic chiasm is where the nerves decesate or cross over to the other side.

The occular motor reflex center receives 25% of the wires.  Homoeostatic reflex.  75% synapse in the thalamus.

Nerve fibers are in the optic nerve.  Optic, occular, trochlear, abducens.

Review

Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Flip Flops: SR, JK, D, T

Z = R + jX,

H = (4 * Pi * #Turns * #Turns * coil Area * mu) / (coil Length * 10,000,000)

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
frac{V_text{s}}{V_{text{p}}} = frac{N_text{s}}{N_text{p}}<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Thyristor/SCR – gate, anode, cathode, one direction</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Triac – bidirectional</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Hardware random number generator: Transducer, amplifier, ADC</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power conversion:</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<ul><br /><br /><br /><br />
<li>AC to DC (<a title=” />rectifier)</p><br /><br />
<ul><br /><br />
<li>DC to AC (<a title=” />inverter)</p><br />
<ul><br />
<li>DC to DC (<a title=” />DC-to-DC converter)</p>
<ul>
<li>AC to AC (<a title=AC-to-AC converter)

MDS
The minimum discernible signalCapacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power factor =real power/apparent power</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>“ELI the ICE man”</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dl><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dd><img src=” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Pre-emphasizer – for high freq</p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br /><br />
<p>Snubber – resister and capacity in series</p><br /><br />
<p>Process gain = spread/unspread</p><br /><br />
<p>Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH</p><br /><br />
<p>Magazine Changes:</p><br /><br />
<p>Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment</p><br /><br />
<p>Tactical – getting low and need to top off</p><br /><br />
<p>Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot</p><br /><br />
<p>MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity</p><br /><br />
<p>Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF</p><br /><br />
<p>Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.</p><br /><br />
<p>Internal/external/terminal ballistics</p><br /><br />
<p>Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries</p><br /><br />
<p>Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective</p><br /><br />
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous</p><br /><br />
<p>Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons</p><br /><br />
<p>CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554</p><br /><br />
<p>Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata</p><br /><br />
<p>Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem</p><br /><br />
<p>Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin</p><br /><br />
<p>Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater</p><br /><br />
<p>X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)</p><br /><br />
<p>Ambush – deploy, suppress, report</p><br /><br />
<p>n1sin01 = n2sin02</p><br /><br />
<p>SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry</p><br /><br />
<p>Nice-Manipulative-Assertive-Aggressive-Assaultive-Murderous</p><br /><br />
<p>L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature</p><br /><br />
<p>Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action</p><br /><br />
<p>Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat</p><br /><br />
<p>A = a l c</p><br /><br />
<p>Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr</p><br /><br />
<p>Alkane CnH2n+2</p><br /><br />
<p>Alkene CnH2n</p><br /><br />
<p>Alkyne CnH2n-2</p><br /><br />
<p>Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8</p><br /><br />
<p>Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon</p><br /><br />
<p>When not moving: herring bone and coil</p><br /><br />
<p>Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch</p><br /><br />
<p>breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy</p><br /><br />
<p>Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs</p><br /><br />
<p>One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.</p><br /><br />
<p>Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd</p><br /><br />
<p>Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5</p><br /><br />
<p>PV = nRT</p><br /><br />
<p>METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians</p><br /><br />
<p>SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment</p><br /><br />
<p>2s 6p 10d 14f</p><br /><br />
<p>KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy</p><br /><br />
<p>Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular</p><br /><br />
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs</p><br /><br />
<p>Bond energy: single < double < triple</p><br /><br />
<p>Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+</p><br /><br />
<p>MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM</p><br /><br />
<p>Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2</p><br /><br />
<p>diameter in mm X length in mm</p><br /><br />
<p>caliber = diameter in mm/25.4</p><br /><br />
<p>supine situps, prone pushups</p><br /><br />
<p>Silence is golden</p><br /><br />
<p>One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage</p><br /><br />
<p>How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor</p><br /><br />
<p>Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy</p><br /><br />
<p>gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound</p><br /><br />
<p>Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L</p><br /><br />
<p>Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L</p><br /><br />
<p>Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect</p><br /><br />
<table cellspacing=” /></td><br />
</tr><br />
<tr><br />
<td colspan=” /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature<strong>  =-174 dBm/Hz</strong></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<div id=

Major Functional Areas:

Brainstem – midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Cerebellum

Hypothalamus

Thalamus (reticular activation system – waking center)

Cerebrum – limbic system (emotions), basal ganglia (subcortical nuclei), cerebral cortex

The 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves

Most are mixed nerves.  Most emerge from the brainstem.

Spinal nerves have 4 types of wires: somatic sensory, visceral sensory, autonomic neurons, somatic motor.

On Old Olympus’s Towering Top, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops

Some Say Marry Money, But My Big Brother Say Business Makes Money

Autonomic motor neurons control the salivary glands.

1 Olfactory – somatic sensory – sense of smell.

2 Optic – somatic sensory – sense of sight.

3 Occulomotor – somatic motor/autonomic motor.  Voluntary control of eye muscles.  Automatic control of pupil diameter.  Pigmented muscle – iris.

4 Trochlear – somatic motor.

5 Trigeminal – somatic sensory/motor. – the most important cranial nerve in dentistry.  Sensation from face and all the teeth.  Mastication.  3 branches.

6 Abducens – somatic motor.  Control lateral rectus.

7  Facial – 3/4.  Taste from tongue.  Contraction of facial muscles.

8 Vestibulocochlear – somatic sensory.  Like 1 and 2.  Sense of hearing and balance.  Cochlea, vestibular apparatus.

9 Glossopharnogeal – means tongue/throat.  Only nerve that is like a spinal nerve.  Has all 4 types of wires.  Taste.  Somatic because one is conscious of it.

10 Vagus –  both.  The largest cranial nerves.  Visceral sensory, somatic motor, autonomic motor.  We don’t feel it.  Internal organs.

11 Accessory – motor.  Larynx, neck and traps muscles.

12  Hypoglossal   -Motor.  Under the tongue.  Propriosection from the tongue.  Injury, can’t move tongue or feel it.

Local anesthetics block nerve conduction in a particular area.

Viral infection of the facial nerve is Bell’s palsy.

Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure.

Review

MDS
The minimum discernible signalCapacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2 

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
V_mathrm{out} = frac{Z_2}{Z_1+Z_2} cdot V_mathrm{in}<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Power factor =real power/apparent power</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>“ELI the ICE man”</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dl><br /><br /><br /><br />
<dd><img src=” /></p><br /><br />
<p>Pre-emphasizer – for high freq</p><br /><br />
<p><img src=” /></p><br />
<p>Snubber – resister and capacity in series</p><br />
<p>Process gain = spread/unspread</p><br />
<p>Spread spectrum – TH, DS, C,  FH</p><br />
<p>Magazine Changes:</p><br />
<p>Emergency – You go dry and it is a right now moment</p><br />
<p>Tactical – getting low and need to top off</p><br />
<p>Admin –  I’m driving out the gate and am going hot</p><br />
<p>MSDA: Red Fire Blue Health White PPE Yellow Reactivity</p><br />
<p>Ballistic programs:Pejsa/Manges/6 DOF</p><br />
<p>Ambush: Accept what is happening, Get challenged, Keep moving and thinking.</p><br />
<p>Internal/external/terminal ballistics</p><br />
<p>Choke affects windpipe, strangle affects arteries</p><br />
<p>Tissue: muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective</p><br />
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo cuboidal/columnar/squamous</p><br />
<p>Lewis acids accept electrons, lewis bases donate electrons</p><br />
<p>CTL SC cervical thoracic lumbar saccral coccygeal 7 12 554</p><br />
<p>Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata</p><br />
<p>Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem</p><br />
<p>Pineal Gland: seratonin, melatonin</p><br />
<p>Layers: dia/arachnoid/pia mater</p><br />
<p>X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine (radioactive, no stable isotopes)</p><br />
<p>Ambush – deploy, suppress, report</p><br />
<p>n1sin01 = n2sin02</p><br />
<p>SN2 = inversion of stereochemistry</p><br />
<p>Nice-Manipulative-Assertive-Aggressive-Assaultive-Murderous</p><br />
<p>L Chatlier – add reactants/products, volume, pressure, temperature</p><br />
<p>Successful Ambush: Surprise , Speed, Violence of Action</p><br />
<p>Aging: oxygen, UV light, water, heat</p><br />
<p>A = a l c</p><br />
<p>Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr</p><br />
<p>Alkane CnH2n+2</p><br />
<p>Alkene CnH2n</p><br />
<p>Alkyne CnH2n-2</p><br />
<p>Most important cyclic molecules: Benzene C6H6/Naphthalene C10H8</p><br />
<p>Moving formations: column line wedge vee eschelon</p><br />
<p>When not moving: herring bone and coil</p><br />
<p>Transversing Terrain: traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch</p><br />
<p>breaking bonds takes energy, making bonds releases energy</p><br />
<p>Loads on average were: – fighting load: 63 lbs – approach march load: 101 lbs – emergency approach march load: 132 lbs</p><br />
<p>One well-established norm is that a soldier cannot sustain a load greater than one-third of his body weight over time.</p><br />
<p>Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rd</p><br />
<p>Types of bonding: ionic >1.7, polar covalent between, non polar <0.5</p><br />
<p>PV = nRT</p><br />
<p>METT TC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians</p><br />
<p>SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment</p><br />
<p>2s 6p 10d 14f</p><br />
<p>KE electron = E photon – Ionization Energy</p><br />
<p>Tissue: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular</p><br />
<p>Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudostratified cuboidal/columnar/squamous ■single covalent bond – 1 shared pair ■double covalent bond – 2 shared pairs ■triple covalent bond – 3 shared pairs</p><br />
<p>Bond energy: single < double < triple</p><br />
<p>Bond length: single < double 2′ > 1′ > CH3+</p><br />
<p>MV x (12/twist rate in inches) x 60 = Bullet RPM</p><br />
<p>Lubricant: Graphite /Molybdenum disulfide MoS2</p><br />
<p>diameter in mm X length in mm</p><br />
<p>caliber = diameter in mm/25.4</p><br />
<p>supine situps, prone pushups</p><br />
<p>Silence is golden</p><br />
<p>One time constant=the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage</p><br />
<p>How can the true power= Apparent power x power factor</p><br />
<p>Modulation index = Frequency Deviation Carrier/Modulating Freqnecy</p><br />
<p>gauge – how many lead spheres the diameter of the bore would equal a pound</p><br />
<p>Density H2O(g) = 0.8 g/L</p><br />
<p>Density Dry Air = 1.225 g/L</p><br />
<p>Wind, vertical angles, air density, gyroscopic spin, mangus effect</p><br />
<table cellspacing=” /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan=

The theoretical noise at the input of a perfect receiver at room temperature  =-174 dBm/Hz

 

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