Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 27 Notes: Hematology 1

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 27 Notes: Hematology 1

Overview

Today we begin a 3 lecture series on hematology.  This lecture costs 55 minutes.

Details

To estimate TBV or total blood volume,

TBV = 8% x Body Weight in kg

ie 70 kg x 8/100 = 5.6 kg = 5.6 L

1:1 relationship between blood and liquid

This is 3 2 liter containers of Coke.

Hematocrit is the % packed cell volume, %PCV

In a centrifuge, the heavy things go to the bottom, the lighter elements go to the top.  The plasma is mostly water and is at the top.  Blood cells make up about 45% of the blood volume.  That is the hematocrit of %PCV.  Most are RBCs.  Platelets and WBC are the buffy coat and are between plasma and hematocrit.

15% PCV is very much anemic.  This is a measurement standard.  If a hematocrit tube is at 65%, then polycythemia.  Many cells in the blood.  At high elevations, we see polycythemia.

Plasma Volume  = 55% x TBV

Plasma is mostly water, 90%.  Else proteins, 7%, grams/100mL.  Most proteins are made by the liver.  Electrophoresis is used to analyze these proteins.  First centrifuge it, then throw the plasma between the + and – terminals.  Proteins go towards the + terminal.  The major source of negative charges are negatively charged proteins.  Most proteins are negative.  The heavier the molecular weight, the slower they move.

Albumin moves the fastests; its the smallest.  Then alpha 1 globulins, beta and gamma.  Globulin means protein.  Albumin accounts for 60% of all proteins in our blood.

COP = Colloid Osmotic Pressure = Amount of water drawn into the bloodstream

Alpha and beta globulins are involved in the transport of fats.  Fats don’t dissolve in water.

Alpha globulins are HDL.  Beta globulins are LDL or low density lipoproteins.  Both transport cholesterol.  Cholesterol is cholesterol.  There is a good and bad lipoprotein.   LDL deposits cholesterol from the liver to the artery walls.  HDL stores Ch from the arteries to the liver.

A betagloblin called transferin that transports iron.

Gamma globlins are immunoglobins.  Antibodies are made by lymphocytes.

5 classes of immunoglobulin = A, D, E, G, N.  IGG we have the most of, IGE the least.  IGG acts on bacteria and viruses.  IGEs act on allergens.

Blood clotting proteins make up 5% of plasma proteins, made in the liver.  Prothrombin, fibrinogen.

Serum = Plasma – Clotting Proteins

Hemophilia – genetic inability to synthesize blood clotting proteins.  Giving plasma or whole blood, they need to infuse heparin to prevent clotting.  Giving serum, this is unnecessary.  Most hemophiliacs are males; these are found on the X sex chromosome.

Other Organic Molecules:

Glucose, about 100 mg/dL

Amino Acids

Fatty Acids

Cholesterol, 200 mg/dL

Hormones

Waste Products

NH3, deamination

Urea/BUN, deamination, breakdown of nucleotides

Uric Acid

Creatinine, waste product from muscles

Billirubin, jaundice

Minerals

Na+ 100 mEq/L

K+            5mE/L

Ca2+

HCO3-, buffer

Formed elements are RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.

5 million RBCs per cubic millimeter.  White blood cells are 7K per cubic mm.

RBCs are biconcave, no nucleus.  8 mm in diameter.  Very small.  Antigens on the surface of RBCs are ABO antigens and Rh antigens.  By the time you are 20 years old, RBCs are made in the ribs, vertebra, and sternum.

Blood Typing

ABO Antigens.  Proteins on the surface of RBCs.  These are recognition molecules.

Rh Antigens.  80% of people are Rh+.

We naturally make antibodies against the blood type that we are not.  The naked Rh- makes the most antibodies against type A, B and Rh.

Imagine a Rh- mom and a Rh+ baby.  This is Rh incompatibility.

Review

Atmosphere: D E F1 F2

V  = IR

P = IV

Z = R + Xi

Xc = 1/2pifC

Xl = 2piLf

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