Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 28 Notes: Hematology 2`

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 28 Notes: Hematology 2`

Overview

Today is part two of a 3 parter on the blood.  This all ties in with our pharmacology work.

Details

Normal RBC count is 5 million/mm3

The function of the RBC is to transport O2 and CO2 by binding to hemoglobin.  Produced in red bone marrow – 1.2 million RBCs formed per second.

Erythropoietin is a hormone secreted by the kidneys, stimulates erythropoeisis in the bone marrow.  The life span of a RBC is about 4 months.  The spleen and liver filter out old damaged RBCs.  The iron is recycled; bilirubin remains.

Anemia is depressed RBC count.  Reduced capacity to carry O2.  Then your cells cannot carry cellular respiration and ATP production are reduced.  There should be 15 grams of hemoglobin in every 100 mL of blood.  15 grams/100 mL is 15%.

Many vitamins are needed to make RBCs.  Vitamin B12 contains cobalt.

Aplastic anemia occurs with chemotherapy.  Chemo damages bone marrow.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder.  Abnormal shaped hemoglobin.

Blood platelets are called thrombocytes.  Contain cell fragments.  Produced in the red blood marrow.  Stimulated by thrombopoeiten from the liver.  Thrombocytopenia is lower than normal platelet number.

Hemostasis is control of bleeding.  Three steps

1) Vascular spasm to reduced the volume and constrict.

2) Formation of platelet plug.  PF or platelet factor forms a spider web (intrinsic factor).

3) Fibrin clot

Aspirin works by interfering with the platelet attachment.  Platelets grab rough edges.  Tissues release TF or tissue factor to activate prothrombinase (extrinsic factor).

Formed elements include RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.

Normal WBC count is 7K/mm2.  Neutrophils are small phagocytes that eat bacteria making up 60% of WBCs.  Lymphocytes make up 25% and are immune responders.  Monocytes are macrophages.  Eiosinophines phagocytize allergens.  Basophils release histamine and heparin.

Only two cells that can move where they wants – WBCs and sperm.  When other cells start to move, they metastosize.

Leukopemia is lower than normal WBC count.  Leukocytosis is higher than normal WBC count.

Two types of leukocytes: granular and agranular.

Granular leukocytes

1) present granuales in the cytoplasm

2) multilobed nucleus.

3) made in the red bone marrow

Neutrophils

light purple, 60% of WBC, eat foreign agents, neutropenia/neutrophilia.

Eosinophils

large red staining granules.  Allergic reactions. eosinophila.

Basophilia

large dark blue granules.  aka mast cells.  release histamine to cause inflammation.  release heparin to counter coagulation.

Agranular Leukocytes

Monocytes

Largest WBCs.  big horseshoe nucleus.  made in the red bone marrow.

Lymphocytes

smallest WBCs, slightly bigger than RBCs.

t lymphocytes

b lymphocytes

Review

CARVER – target acquisition – critical, accessible, recovery, vunerable, effective, recognizable

SALUTE – size activity location unit time equipment

V = IR

P = IV
Z = R + Xi

Xc = 1/2pifc

Xl = 2pifL

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