Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 30 Notes: Cancer and Viruses

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 30 Notes: Cancer and Viruses


We’ll take a pseudo-break with this 26 lecture on cancers.  Tomorrow we’ll move on to more drug work.  This guy Ratfink has about 150 lectures floating around, which cover all topics relating to the dental boards.


Benign and Malignant Tumors

Benign – tissue growth associated with disruption of normal control of cellular division.  Treatment is usually surgical removal of the tissue mass.

Malignant – uncontrolled growth.  Metastasizes or migrates.


Carcinomas (85%) – skin, mouth, lung, breast, stomach, epithelial tissue

Sacromas (2%) – bone and connective tissue

Lymphmas – lymph nodes, Hodgkin’s disease



Surgical removal, radiation, chemo.  Chemo after removing the main mass.

Cancer occurs in two steps: transformation and growth.


Genetic Predisposition

oncogenes.  Inherit a defect in DNA, leads to cell becoming cancerous.


environmental carcinogens lead to mutation lead to cells becoming cancerous.

Non-lytic Viruses

NLVs become incorporated into host cells chromosomes creating oncogenes.

Deficient Immune Response

lymphocyte WBCs to antibodies to inactivating viruses and abnormal cells.

Components of the Immune System

lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix (tongue of the abdomen), spleen, thymus

All immune system organs produce lymphocyte WBCs.

Lymphocytes release antibodies called gamma globins against foreign agents or antigens that enter the body.

Inappropriate Immune Responses:

Allergies, transplant/graft rejection, autoimmune disease

Autoimmune Diseases

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic fever

Multiple sclerosis

Juvenile onset diabetes

Cancer growth is affected by promoting/growth inhibiting factors and long lag between transformation/growth.

Viral Infections

Viral particles are DNA and RNA surrounded by a protein.  Naturally present in air, water and food but only reproduce inside living organisms.  Viral particles can enter host cells.

Lytic Viral Infections

Host cell makes copies of the viral DNA leading to more viral particles.  VPs cause rupture or lysis of host cells.

Infections of the Respiratory Tract

Common Cold – air

Viral Influenza – flu, air

Viral Pneumonia – air

Viral Infections of the Skin

Measles – air, rubella

German Measles – rubella, blood

Chicken Pox – air



Viral Infections of the Nervous System

Polio – fecal contamination

Rabies – biting

Viral Encephalitis

VI of the LIver

Viral hepatitis – fecal contamination in the blood

yellow fever

VI of the reproductive system

genital herpies – direct physical contact

HIV destroys lyphocyte WBCs

mumps – air


The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base

Cn = 6 is octahedral geometry.

Cn = 5 is trigonal bipyramidal or square pyramidal

Cn = 4 is square planar or tetrahedral

Cn = 3 is trigonal planar

Cn =2 is linear

1 dB = 20.5%

Ground waves – less than 3 MHz

The stronger the base, the better the nucleophile

pH = -log [H+]

Tortoises live on land, turtles live in water.

Shell – upper part is carapace, lower part is plastron

Tissue: muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective

Fibrous layer: sclera, cornea

Sensory layer: retina

Vascular layer: choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Strong acids completely dissociate : HI, HBr, HCl, HNO3, HSO4, HOCL2.  In general, pKa < -2.

H30+  (-1.7)

pKa = – log Ka

RCOOH (4-5)

HF (3.2)

NH4+ (9.26)

H2O (15.7)

ROH (17)

RSH (11)

HCN (9)

NH3, RNH2 (38)

H2 (35)

Alkanes (50)

Alkene (44)

Alkyne (25)

HF +3.2

HCl -7

HBr  -9

HI -10

RH +50

RNH2 +38

ROH + 17

HF  +3.2

ROH (17)


CH3COOH (4.76)

CH2FCOOH (2.66)

CHF2CooH (1.24)

CF3COOH (.23)

CH-=CH (25)  sp

H2C=CH2 (43) sp2

H3C-CH3 (50) sp3

Blood: RBC, WBC, platelets, plasma

RBCs – 7 million per mm3

WBCs – 7000 per mm3

Intermolecular Forces: Van der Waals, H bonding, London, dipole-dipole

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