Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 31 Notes

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 31 Notes


Today, we study parathyroid hormone and calcitonin.  It weighs in at 28 minutes long.


Four Hormones Essential For Life

Insulin – deficiency casues diabetes mealitis.  Antagonist is glucagon.  From the pancreatic islets, beta cells.  Alpha cells make glucagon.  Lowers blood sugar level, transporter proteins into the liver as glycogen, facilitated diffusion.  Anabolic.  Only one hormones promotes anabolic reactions.  Glucagon comes from beta cells, catabolic.

Cortisol – promotes the breakdown of proteins into sugars.  Surpresses the immune system.

Aldosterone –

PTH – comes from the parathyroid glands.  Increases blood calcium levels activating osteoblasts.  Maintains the right amount of calcium.  Para means around.

Calcitonin – para follicular cells in the thyroid make it, is an antagonist of PTH.  Decreases calcium blood levels into the bones.  Not essential to life.  Affects osteoblasts – osteoblasts build.  Calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate.

Osteoclasts break down bone tissue, bone resorption.

Calcium is used for muscle contraction and blood clotting.

Bonica/fozomax are bone density builders for older people.

Doctors are risk averse.  If they mess up, they are afraid that they will be sued.  This is why estrogen is less prescribed than it was.


Transistor: collector base emitter

alpha_F = frac{I_{text{C}}}{I_{text{E}}}

beta_F = frac{I_{text{C}}}{I_{text{B}}}
beta_F = frac{alpha_{F}}{1 - alpha_{F}}iff alpha_{F} = frac{beta_F}{beta_F+1}
Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO3,
Strong Bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2,
pH = pK + log base/acid
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