Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 35 Notes: Nervous System

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 35 Notes: Nervous System


Moving on to the organization of the nervous system.  Today we have a 40 minute lecture on this subject.


Sperm and eggs are called sex cells.  They have only the haploid number of chromosomes.  The zygote is the union of the sperm and egg.

CTL SC 7 12 554 cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

3 meninges/membranes wrapped around the spinal cord and brain.  DAP – dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater from outside to in.  Between the arachnoid and pia mater is the subarachnoid space, which is filled with CSF.  Just outside the dura mater is the epidural space; women have an epidural during childbirth.

There are openings called intervertebral foramen which is how the spinal cord leaves the vertebra.

The innervation of the body means nerves are supplied to a portion of the body.  The cervical nerves supply the neck and the arms.  The thorasic innervate the torso.  The lumbar and sacral nerves innervate the legs.

A nerve is like a cable.  Inside a nerve are many neurons.  Two types of wires:

Sensory or afferent nerve fibers

From body to the CNS.  “Away” from the body.

Motor or affarent nerve fibers

From the CNS to the body.  “Enter” the body.

A typical spinal nerve has fibers going out and fibers coming in.  There are four types of wires in the spinal cord:

somatic sensory –  information to the CNS.  From the muscles to the spinal cord.

visceral sensory – information to the CNS from the inside of the body, the organs.

somatic motor – from the CNS to the body.

autonomic motor – from the CNS to the body.

3 Types of Neurons:

1) Sensory or afferent: somatic (skin/skeleton reaches consciousness) and visceral (inside the body or organs, unconscious)

2) Interneurons – located entirely inside the brain or spinal column.  Thinking, memory and decision usage.  Temperature control system.

3) Motor or efferent – APs from CNS to effectors.  Somatic innervate skeletal muscle.  Autonomic control internal organs and are involuntary – smooth/cardiac muscle.

Hunger is in the brain, thirst is from the brain.  Feeling your internal organs would be overwhelming.

Divisions of the Nervous System

Central or peripheral.  CNS is brain and spinal cord.  Interneurons for thinking, memory and decisions.  The PNS is the nerves coming off the brain and spinal column – sensory and motor neurons.  Sensory in, motor out.

3 meningeal membranes: epidural, dura mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater.

Oligodendrites form the mylien covering of the interneurons in the CNS.  Sensory and motor neurons can be covered by the Schwann cells.


Brainstem: Pons, Medulla Oblongata, midbrain

Structural Rearrangements: deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations

Evolution: mutation, selection, drift, migration, inbreeding

Muscle: cardiac, smooth, skeletal

Karyotypes show the number of each chromosomes

Aneuploids – errors in the number of chromosomes

mbox{Therapeutic ratio} = frac{mathrm{LD}_{50}}{mathrm{ED}_{50}}

Ozone layer 0.6 parts per million

UV-A (400–315 nm), UV-B (315–280 nm), UV-C (280–100 nm).

OIL RIG oxidation is loss of electrons, reduction is gain

alkane 50 alkene 43 hydride 42 amine 38

alkyne 25 ketone/ester 22 water 15.7 alcohol

17 phenol/ammonium 10

HF 3.2 HCl -6 HBr -9 HI -10 H2SO4 -3

Strong Acids have pKa < -2

The Big Four: PT, Marksmanship, Battle

Drills, Medical Training, Mobility

SPLC staffing probabilities logistics contingencies

Radiation: alpha, beta, gamma

Alpha emmiters: polonium, radon, radium

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