Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 38 Notes: Cardiovascular System

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 38 Notes: Cardiovascular System


Today is part 3 of 4 on the CV system; it clocks in at a massive 64 minutes.


The SA node or sino atrial node spontaneously emit APs.  The AV node has the second fastest rate and will take over if the SA is damaged.

P wave, QRS wave, T wave describe how the AP moves through the heart.  The P wave is made by the depolarization by the muscle cells.  If the P wave looks changed, the cells are no depolarizing properly. 

The ventricular muscle cells create the QRS wave.  A repolarization creates the T wave.

This wave pattern is picked up on the body.  12 different views can be taken of how the current is moving through the body.

You need to be relaxed or else APs from skeletal muscle will be picked up.

Where To Place the Sensors?

Lead 1: RALA – Right arm, left arm

Lead 2: RALL – Right arm, left leg.  There’s an upward wave with the cationic side on the left leg.

Lead 3: LALL – Left arm, left leg

What Is Normal For Lead 2?

NSR is normal sinus rhythm.  A totally normal EEG, all waves P, QRS, T present.

P waves should last from 0.8 to 1 s.  Atrial depolarization.

T wave is ventricular depolarization.  Flat T wave means the ventricles aren’t repolarizing properly.

Calibration pulse is a 5mV pulse necessary for the machine.

Always start with the most prominent waves, the R or QRS waves.  Then the next wave is the T wave.  Then the next after that is the P.

The purpose of the atria is to absorb the blood.

The PR interval is measured from the beginning of the P to the beginning of the Q.  The AP is travelling through the AV node during the flat portion.

Each lead has a characteristic waveform.  If part of the heart is dead, the waveform will be changed forever.

Vector electrical current is measured by cardiologists.

In fact, you can go in and “damage” the heart in such a way as to correct the waveform.

Use a beta blocker to block the sympathetic influence, allow the parasympathetic influence which would relax it.

And at this point, his students are able to use knowledge of the nervous system and drugs to start making predictions.


Covalent (electronegativity < 0.5)

Polar Covalent (0.5 <electronegativity < 1.9)

Ionic (electronegativity > 1.9)

colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.  Two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a continuous phase (or dispersion medium) in which the colloid is dispersed.

suspension =heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles  larger for sedimentation, larger than 1 micrometer.  Will settle eventually.

Emulsion Instability: flocculation, creaming, and coalescence

Emulsion =mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (nonmixable or unblendable).

light waves scattered =if their sizes exceed about one-quarter of the wavelength of the incident light.

Scorpions: the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Arteries carry oxygenated blood; veins carry deoxygenated blood

alkane 50 alkene 43 hydride 42 amine 38 alkyne 25 ketone/ester 22

water 15.7 alcohol 17 phenol/ammonium 10, HF 3.2 HCl -6 HBr -9 HI -10 H2SO4 -3

Strong Acids have pKa < -2

The Big Four: PT, Marksmanship, Battle Drills, Medical Training, Mobility

SPLC staffing probabilities logistics contingencies

Radiation: alpha, beta, gamma

Alpha emitters: polonium, radon, radium

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