Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 40 Notes: CV System

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 40 Notes: CV System

Overview

Well, the last part of our review of the cardiovascular system.  This one is going to cost you 53 minutes:

Details

Like any other muscle, the heart hypertrophy’s in response to higher workload.  There are two causes: aerobic exercise, increased arterial blood pressure.  Especially the diastolic or afterload.  Recall systole/diastole.

The higher the diastolic pressure, the harder the heart has to work to open the AV valve.  Clogging up of the arteries with fat is the most common reason for high diastolic pressure.  High blood pressure is bad because you never stop “exercising.”

Normal cardiac output is 5 mL/minute at rest

Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume

Normal heart rate is between 60 and 100.  Average is 75 bpm.  Maximal is from 160 to 180, usually about 165.  This is influenced by autonomic motorneurons to the heart.

Stoke volume is the volume of blood ejected by the heart each beat.  Determined by myocardial contractility, the force of contraction.

Sympathetics + EPI = Increased myocardial contractility

Starling’s Law of the Heart/Length Tension relationship

1) Described by Frank Starling in 1918

2) The ventricle normally ejects about 70 mL

3) Stretched muscle contracts more forcefully than a non-stretched muscle.  The more water in the balloon, the more forcefully the balloon ejects the water.

Venous Return (VR)

The flow of blood back to the heart.

Endiastolic Volume = Filling the ventricle with blood.

Veins have valves, arteries do not.

Flow = Pressure/Resistance

Cardiac Output = BP/Resistance

Total Peripheral Resistance x CO = Arterial BP

Review

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 J/mol

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws

the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
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