Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 43: Solutions and Concentrations

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 43: Solutions and Concentrations


And now, the prize.  This lecture is 46 minutes and covers edema.


Arteries carry oxygenated blood, veins carry deoxygenated.

Two major factors affecting the movement of water across a capillary:

1) Capillary blood pressure/capillary hydrostatic pressure – normal is 26 mm of Hg.  The blood pressure is different in different areas of the body.  Highest in the arteries, goes down further away from the heart.  Capillaries is about 26 from 120 in the arteries. OUT 

Water squirts out of the capillaries.  They are a bit like hoses with holes in them.  Capillaries are leaky to everything but proteins, which are too big.

2) Plasma colloid osmotic pressure – Colloid means protein.  The osmotic pressure of blood is 25 mmHg higher than the other fluids of the body.  Draws water into the bloodstream.  IN

Diffusion is when the solute moves, osmosis is when water moves.

Tissue cells are surrounded by tissue fluid.  Water squirts out of the capillaries.  If BP rises, more water squirts out.  Proteins in the blood draw water in.  When sugar enters the urine, water is drawn out too.

Water tends to follow the solute.

Salt draws water out of a snail.

The actual concentration of albumin/protein in the blood is 7%, 7 grams/100 mL H2O.  Most proteins are made in the liver – albumin is the main one.  4 of the 7 grams are albumin.

The net movement of water across the capillary wall:

Net Filtration Pressure = Capillary – COP colloid osmotic pressure

26 – 25 mm = 1 mm Hg

More water is going out than coming in.  The excess fluid is returned to the body by the lymphatic vessels.  Lymphatic vessels are everywhere in the body.  Right thoracic duct empties into the right subclavian.  Left thoracic duct empties into the left subclavian,

Edema is an accumulation of fluid.  In the lungs, pulmonary edema.  In the abdominal, abdominal edema.

Dehydration is the loss of fluid, the polar opposite.

Blood pressure increasing increases the amount of water leaving the capillaries.  Every person with high BP has edema and is given a diuretic.

Pulmanary hypertension is in the lungs.

The ankles is where edema is most noticable.  Swelling.

A drop in BP is hypotension or shock.  This will cause dehydration.

Liver Disorders: Hepatitis and Cirrhosis.  The liver is the detox organ.  Increased alcohol becomes fat.  Alcoholic beverages are high in calories.  Alcohol into aCoA to fatty acids.  Fatty acids are alway a multiple two in length.

Starvation .  The simplest type is nothing to eat.  Or not getting enough protein, called kwashiorkor.

Plasma protein levels drop, COP drops and water is not drawn back in.  Edema is developed.  Water accumulates in the tissues.  Very noticable in the stomach.

A blockage of the lymphatic vessels leads to massive edema.  Elephantituses.  Stoppage of lymphatic flow.  It’s a parasitic worm that lives and multiples in the lymphatic vessels.  Not found in the US.

Lymphedema.  Found after a radical mastectomy.  Removing the entire breast and the lympatic vessels.  New chemotherapy was developed.  Cancer multiples and travels through the lymph nodes.  There would be constant swelling in the shoulder and chest.


1 mEQ = 1 mM x valence  Electrolytes are often given as mEQ.

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

Water 18.02 grams/mole

Keep the dogma simple. Make only 1 or 2 points.

Be forthright and powerfully direct. Speak only in the telling or ordering mode.

As much as possible, reduce concepts down into stereotypes which are black and white.

Speak to people’s emotions and stir them constantly.

Use lots of repetition; repeat your points over and over again.

Forget literary beauty, scientific reasoning, balance, or novelty.

Focus solely on convincing people and creating zealots.

Find slogans which can be used to drive the movement forward.

Abduction away

Bonds: ionic, polar covalent, covalent

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole/dipole, VdW

mEQ indicates the total number of electrical charges.

HCO3.  H+ (CO3)-  major buffer found in the ECM.

HPO4– monohydrogen phosphate is the major buffer found in the cytoplasm.

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equatorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 kJ/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

equatorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

radius thumb, pinky ulna

Octane Rating: heptane/2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Atmophere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

sigma bond: end to end overlap

23 cm – 1296 MHz

70 cm – 443 MHz

pi bond: sideways overlap

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the cis isomer has the higher boiling point.

Why is the boiling point of the cis isomers higher?  There must be stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules of the cis isomers than between trans isomers.

Why is the melting point of the cis isomers lower?

You might have thought that the same argument would lead to a higher melting point for cis isomers as well, but there is another important factor operating. In order for the intermolecular forces to work well, the molecules must be able to pack together efficiently in the solid.

Trans isomers pack better than cis isomers. The “U” shape of the cis isomer doesn’t pack as well as the straighter shape of the trans isomer.  The poorer packing in the cis isomers means that the intermolecular forces aren’t as effective as they should be and so less energy is needed to melt the molecule – a lower melting point.

liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules.

Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state.

Methane is a gas, up to pentane is a liquid

Distillation towers cool as the towers rise

dashes away, solid line towards

f layer 2500 miles, e layer 1200 miles

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA


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