Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 45 Notes: Amino Acids and Proteins

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 45 Notes: Amino Acids and Proteins


I thought we’d cover proteins for a spell.  This lecture costs 41 minutes.

Here’s a brief primer on complete proteins.



A protein is a 3 D coiled chain of amino acid.  The chain is a polypeptide.  When it folds into its shape, its a protein.  Denaturation is an uncoiling of the protein.

Temperature, pH, and heavy metals can cause denaturation.


Only the R groups vary.  There are 20 amino acids.  Most amino acids end in “ine.”

Amino acids are joined together through dehydration synthesis reactions.  Sugars and many other organic molecules are joined.  Break up a chain is called a hydrolysis reaction.

Making polypeptides is like writing sentences.

When we eat proteins, they are broken into amino acids.  About 10 of the 20 amino acids are non-essential.  The essential AAs can be made into the non-essential AAs.

The egg is nature’s most perfect food.  Plants often lack certain AAs; they vegans need to match food with care.  Complete versus incomplete protein foods.

Proteins differ in:

number of AA, type of AAs, order, folding of chain.


most important of all proteins, catalyze biological reactions.

The substrate is the reactant and this is what the enzyme attaches to.  The product is what the substrate is changed into.


Enzymes are inhibited by antibiotics.  Aspirin and advil inhibit the enzyme responsible for converting phospholipids into prostaglandins.  Lipitor and other statins inhibit the enzyme converting fatty acids into cholesterol.

The lock and key model.  Coenzymes are vitamines and minerals; help the enzyme catalyze a reaction.

Enzymes inhibitors/Poisons:

chemicals that prevent a substrate from attaching to an enzyme.  Cyanide interferes with an enzyme in cell respiration.  AChase/acetylcholinesterase inhibitor interferes with an enzyme in the nervous system, causing muscle paralysis.

3 types of muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

Phospholipids into prostaglandins upon injury.  Redness, warmth, swelling, pain are indicators of inflammation.


Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol, protein hormones are made from proteins.  Steroids need to be injected, not broken down in the digestive system.

Insulin comes from beta cells of the pancreatic islets.  100 mg of glucose/ dL.  Deficiency of insulin is hypoglycemia or diabetes; the glucose doesn’t leave the bloodstream.

Growth hormone comes from the pituitary gland/adenohyophsis

Oxytocin  comes from the pituitary gland, causes labor contractions in the uterus.

Antibodies are proteins.  Globins and globulins are proteins.  B lymphocytes produce antibodies and inactivate foreign agents.

Nucleic acids consist of coiled up chains of nucleotides linked together in a precise arrangement.


sagittal, coronal, transverse sections

Night vision: Tapetum lucidum

Bicep: bicep brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis, brachoradialis

1 mEQ = 1 mM x valence  Electrolytes are often given as mEQ.

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

Water 18.02 grams/mole

Keep the dogma simple. Make only 1 or 2 points.

Be forthright and powerfully direct. Speak only in the telling or ordering mode.

As much as possible, reduce concepts down into stereotypes which are black and white.

Speak to people’s emotions and stir them constantly.

Use lots of repetition; repeat your points over and over again.

Forget literary beauty, scientific reasoning, balance, or novelty.

Focus solely on convincing people and creating zealots.

Find slogans which can be used to drive the movement forward.

Abduction away

Bonds: ionic, polar covalent, covalent

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole/dipole, VdW

mEQ indicates the total number of electrical charges.

HCO3.  H+ (CO3)-  major buffer found in the ECM.

HPO4– monohydrogen phosphate is the major buffer found in the cytoplasm.

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equatorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Flight:supracoracoideus and the pectorals

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 kJ/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

equatorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

radius thumb, pinky ulna

Octane Rating: heptane/2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Atmophere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

sigma bond: end to end overlap

23 cm – 1296 MHz

70 cm – 443 MHz

pi bond: sideways overlap

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the cis isomer has the higher boiling point.

Why is the boiling point of the cis isomers higher?  There must be stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules of the cis isomers than between trans isomers.

Why is the melting point of the cis isomers lower?

You might have thought that the same argument would lead to a higher melting point for cis isomers as well, but there is another important factor operating. In order for the intermolecular forces to work well, the molecules must be able to pack together efficiently in the solid.

Trans isomers pack better than cis isomers. The “U” shape of the cis isomer doesn’t pack as well as the straighter shape of the trans isomer.  The poorer packing in the cis isomers means that the intermolecular forces aren’t as effective as they should be and so less energy is needed to melt the molecule – a lower melting point.

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules.

Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state.

Methane is a gas, up to pentane is a liquid

Distillation towers cool as the towers rise

dashes away, solid line towards

f layer 2500 miles, e layer 1200 miles

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
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