Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 45 Notes: Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 45 Notes: Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids


We’ll cover nucleotides today.  The cost is 56 minutes.


Nucleic acid is an important organic compound; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins.  Nucleic acids are coiled up chain of nucleotides.  Proteins are coils of amino acids.

Each nucleotide has a nitrogenous base, a 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate.  The nitrogenous base comes in ATCG and U.  The 5 carbon sugar can be ribose or deoxyribose.



2   3

Pyramidines have 1 rings.  Purines have 2 rings.

Adenine and phosphate is adenosine.  Uric acid and caffeine both look like adenine.

ATP is the energy currency of the cell.

ADP + Pi + energy = ATP   (phosphorylation)

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36ATP

ATP (ATPase/Ca2+) = ADP + P + energy

Vitamins and minerals are the usual coenzymes.

7000 calories/mole of ATP release.

RNA is involved in protein synthesis, AGCU, single stranded.

DNA is involved in transcription, ATGC, double stranded, complementary chains.

chromosome, DNA molecule

Most of the time, the DNA molecule is uncoiled.  The coiled DNA form is a chromosome when the cell is in the process of dividing; mitosis.  During prophase it coils, during teleophase, the DNA uncoils into chromatin.  A chromatid is another name for the DNA molecule.

During the s period of the cell cycle, there is DNA replication.  A centromere holds sister chromatids together.

Cofactors, coenzymes or vitamins assists enzymes in catalyzing biochemical reactions.  Needed in small quantities.  Vitamins are all organic compounds.  Vitamin A, D, E and K are fat soluble.

Vitamin A/retinol is essential for vision and skin/night blindness.  Vitamin D/calciferol for absorption of calcium/rickets.  Vitamin E/tocopherol for blood cell production, antioxidant of unsaturated fatty acids/anemia.  Vitamin K/phylloquinone for normal blood clotting/delayed clotting.  It is possible to overdose on fat soluble vitamins because they can accumulate.

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamin C/absorbic acid is needed for collagen synthesis, antioxidant, iron uptake/scurvy.  Fibroblasts are one type of connective tissue that make and secrete collagen.  Collagen gives strength to a tissue.

B complex vitamines are essential in cellular respiration/many side effects.  Niacin is used in NAD for cell respiration.  Riboflavin is used in FAD.  Panthionic acid is used in CoA.  Water soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine.

Minerals are all inorganic ions or electrolytes.  Those with a + charge, cations, and those with a negative, anions.  Most of these act as coenzymes.


Calcium or Ca2+ makes up the bones, teeth, muscle contractions, blood clotting, ATPase.  Phosphorus is found as phosphates; bones, teeth, nucleotides, plasma membrane.  Magnesium or Mg2+ is found in many enzymes.  Sodium or Na+ and generates action potentials.  Chloride or Cl- forms HCl in gastric juice.  Potassium or K+ determines the cell membrane potential of every cell in the body.


Iron or Fe2+ is found in hemoglobin and in many enzymes.  Copper or Cu2+ is a coenzyme, MAO or mono amine oxidase.  Iodine or I- is needed to produce thyroid hormone.  Manganese or Mn2+ is a coenzyme.  Zn2+ or zinc is part of many enzymes, DNA polymerase.  Ni2+ or nickel is a coenzyme.

When the thyroid doesn’t get enough iodine, it swells up and becomes goiter.  NaI.


Petroleum products: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt).

OIL RIG oxidation is loss, reduction is gain

sagittal, coronal, transverse sections

Night vision: Tapetum lucidum

Bicep: bicep brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis, brachoradialis

1 mEQ = 1 mM x valence  Electrolytes are often given as mEQ.

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

Water 18.02 grams/mole

Keep the dogma simple. Make only 1 or 2 points.

Be forthright and powerfully direct. Speak only in the telling or ordering mode.

As much as possible, reduce concepts down into stereotypes which are black and white.

Speak to people’s emotions and stir them constantly.

Use lots of repetition; repeat your points over and over again.

Forget literary beauty, scientific reasoning, balance, or novelty.

Focus solely on convincing people and creating zealots.

Find slogans which can be used to drive the movement forward.

Abduction away

Bonds: ionic, polar covalent, covalent

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole/dipole, VdW

mEQ indicates the total number of electrical charges.

HCO3.  H+ (CO3)-  major buffer found in the ECM.

HPO4– monohydrogen phosphate is the major buffer found in the cytoplasm.

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equatorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Flight:supracoracoideus and the pectorals

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 kJ/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

equatorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

radius thumb, pinky ulna

Octane Rating: heptane/2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Atmophere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

sigma bond: end to end overlap

23 cm – 1296 MHz

70 cm – 443 MHz

pi bond: sideways overlap

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the cis isomer has the higher boiling point.

Why is the boiling point of the cis isomers higher?  There must be stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules of the cis isomers than between trans isomers.

Why is the melting point of the cis isomers lower?

You might have thought that the same argument would lead to a higher melting point for cis isomers as well, but there is another important factor operating. In order for the intermolecular forces to work well, the molecules must be able to pack together efficiently in the solid.

Trans isomers pack better than cis isomers. The “U” shape of the cis isomer doesn’t pack as well as the straighter shape of the trans isomer.  The poorer packing in the cis isomers means that the intermolecular forces aren’t as effective as they should be and so less energy is needed to melt the molecule – a lower melting point.

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules.

Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state.

Methane is a gas, up to pentane is a liquid

Distillation towers cool as the towers rise

dashes away, solid line towards

f layer 2500 miles, e layer 1200 miles

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
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