Home > Biology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 46 Notes: The Rest of the Animal Kingdom

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 46 Notes: The Rest of the Animal Kingdom


I’ve had my eye on this lecture for a long time.  What the hell – let’s try it.  This is a monster lecture at 85 minutes.


Mollusks are mussels, squids, octopus.  Anthropoda is the insects.

We’re going to explore the invertebrates today.  First, the lower invertebrates:

Porifera means to have pores and openings.  Sponges, the most primitive of all animals.  Filter the water.  Sesile – don’t move.  Internal skeleton.  Baby sponges bud off the body.  It does not photosynthesize.

Cnideria.  The hollow gut animals.  Jellyfish and coral.  Tenticles, radial symmetry.  Only one hole for excretion and food.

Platyphopheras are flat worms.  Tapeworm.  Nutrients are absorbed through the body.  An intermediate host like cows are often used.  Don’t eat infected meat.  Cook it well.  Don’t put human waste where you raise livestock.

Nemotodoes have a mouth and an anus.  All animals before this were proteostomes – anus mouths.  The pin worm that lives around the rectum.  Use scotch tape to tap the anus, look for scratching the butt.  Trigonosis and undercooked pork.

Mollusks means soft body.  60K species, most have shells.  Three types: snails, clams, and the octopus.  A bivalve has two halfs, 2 parts to the clam shell.  Clam chowder is the muscular foot that burrows into the steak.  Shells are usually made of calcium carbonate.  Pearls can be made at oyster farms.  The octopus has 8 legs, the squid has 10 legs.

Segmented worms or annalids.  Earthworms.  Repetition of body segments is memerism.  The clitelum is for reproduction and is larger and smooth.  Earthworms are hermaphrodites.  Earthworms loosen and aerate the soil.  Leeches are parasites, a mouth at one end, an anus at the other.  An ecto parasite lives on the surface.  Leeches used in medicine post surgery for anti coagulant and to increase blood flow.  Black eyes could be treated with a bottle of leeches.

Arthropoda or jointed foot.  Three classes of crustacia, arachnidea, insect.  Arthropods have exoskeletons, molting.  Arachnids are ticks, mites, scorpions and spiders – 8 walking legs.  Female black widows have a red hourglass on their underside.  In the insect world, the female is usually larger than the male.  The thread of a web is stronger than steel for its size.  Crustacia are crayfish, crabs, lobsters.  Insecta – there are most species of this than any other species 800K.  Arachnids have 8 legs, crustaea 10, insects 6.

Echinodermata or spiny skin.  Starfish, sand dollar, urchin.  Radial symmetry.  You cannot cut them into two halfs.



Petroleum products: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt).

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

OIL RIG oxidation is loss, reduction is gain

sagittal, coronal, transverse sections

Night vision: Tapetum lucidum

Bicep: bicep brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis, brachoradialis

1 mEQ = 1 mM x valence  Electrolytes are often given as mEQ.

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

Water 18.02 grams/mole

Keep the dogma simple. Make only 1 or 2 points.

Be forthright and powerfully direct. Speak only in the telling or ordering mode.

As much as possible, reduce concepts down into stereotypes which are black and white.

Speak to people’s emotions and stir them constantly.

Use lots of repetition; repeat your points over and over again.

Forget literary beauty, scientific reasoning, balance, or novelty.

Focus solely on convincing people and creating zealots.

Find slogans which can be used to drive the movement forward.

Abduction away

Bonds: ionic, polar covalent, covalent

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole/dipole, VdW

mEQ indicates the total number of electrical charges.

HCO3.  H+ (CO3)-  major buffer found in the ECM.

HPO4– monohydrogen phosphate is the major buffer found in the cytoplasm.

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equatorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Flight:supracoracoideus and the pectorals

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 kJ/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

equatorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

radius thumb, pinky ulna

Octane Rating: heptane/2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Atmophere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

sigma bond: end to end overlap

23 cm – 1296 MHz

70 cm – 443 MHz

pi bond: sideways overlap

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the cis isomer has the higher boiling point.

Why is the boiling point of the cis isomers higher?  There must be stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules of the cis isomers than between trans isomers.

Why is the melting point of the cis isomers lower?

You might have thought that the same argument would lead to a higher melting point for cis isomers as well, but there is another important factor operating. In order for the intermolecular forces to work well, the molecules must be able to pack together efficiently in the solid.

Trans isomers pack better than cis isomers. The “U” shape of the cis isomer doesn’t pack as well as the straighter shape of the trans isomer.  The poorer packing in the cis isomers means that the intermolecular forces aren’t as effective as they should be and so less energy is needed to melt the molecule – a lower melting point.

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules.

Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state.

Methane is a gas, up to pentane is a liquid

Distillation towers cool as the towers rise

dashes away, solid line towards

f layer 2500 miles, e layer 1200 miles

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
  1. March 16, 2013 at 4:11 am

    At first I wasn’t sure I would find this useful, but it has some great information about the transmission of parasites.

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