Home > Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 47 Notes: Terrestrial Plants

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 47 Notes: Terrestrial Plants

Overview

We’ll finish up the weird stuff with this lecture on land living plants.

Details

Brown algae is kelp.  They have air bladders to help them float.

The mosses are bryophytes.  Lichens grow on rocks or trees.  Mosses grow on dirt.

Tracheophytes are the vascular plants.  There are two types of veins: phloem down and xylem.  One carries sugars that are in the top part of the plant.  The xylem up carries nutreits up to the leaves.

Three Classes

Filicinea – ferns.  Ratfink only wants us to know two things.  There are 10,000 species of ferns.  Fronds are the leaves.  On the underside of the fern are reproductive spore sacs called sori.

Gymnosperms – conifers.  The conifer because they have cones.  Cone bearing trees and cones, needle shaped leaves year around. Needles are the leaves.  Well adapted to places that get snow.  Fascicles are the bundles of needles.  Needles per fascicle is characteristic of the species.

Female cones start small and grow larger.  Eggs inside.  Male cones are small and in clusters.  Wind disperses the pollen.  Male microgametes can stick to a female cone.

Angiosperms – flowers.  250K species.  Botanists specialize in plants.  Wind or insect pollinated?  Insect pollinated are colored and smelly.

monocots – 50 K species.  Grasslike.  Grasses are grains; rice, rye, corn, etc.  Palm trees too, palm trees are not real trees.  No branches.  The seeds are one piece.  All vessels in straight lines.  Monocot flowers are always in threes or multiples.

dicots – all other flowering plants and trees.  200K species.  Lima beans or seeds have two halves.  Vessels are branched.  Vessels in rings.  Flower parts are in multiples of fours or fives.

Succatash is lima beans and corn.  Also found as peas and carrots.

Trees have large trunks.  Herbs are plants with no wood.  Some plants only live one year like tomatoes.  Perinnials live year after year.

Evergreens always have leaves, deciduous shed their leaves.  Succulents have fleshy stems.

Review

Petroleum products: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt).

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

OIL RIG oxidation is loss, reduction is gain

sagittal, coronal, transverse sections

Night vision: Tapetum lucidum

Bicep: bicep brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis, brachoradialis

1 mEQ = 1 mM x valence  Electrolytes are often given as mEQ.

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

Water 18.02 grams/mole

Keep the dogma simple. Make only 1 or 2 points.

Be forthright and powerfully direct. Speak only in the telling or ordering mode.

As much as possible, reduce concepts down into stereotypes which are black and white.

Speak to people’s emotions and stir them constantly.

Use lots of repetition; repeat your points over and over again.

Forget literary beauty, scientific reasoning, balance, or novelty.

Focus solely on convincing people and creating zealots.

Find slogans which can be used to drive the movement forward.

Abduction away

Bonds: ionic, polar covalent, covalent

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole/dipole, VdW

mEQ indicates the total number of electrical charges.

HCO3.  H+ (CO3)-  major buffer found in the ECM.

HPO4– monohydrogen phosphate is the major buffer found in the cytoplasm.

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equatorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Flight:supracoracoideus and the pectorals

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 kJ/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

equatorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

radius thumb, pinky ulna

Octane Rating: heptane/2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Atmophere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

sigma bond: end to end overlap

23 cm – 1296 MHz

70 cm – 443 MHz

pi bond: sideways overlap

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the cis isomer has the higher boiling point.

Why is the boiling point of the cis isomers higher?  There must be stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules of the cis isomers than between trans isomers.

Why is the melting point of the cis isomers lower?

You might have thought that the same argument would lead to a higher melting point for cis isomers as well, but there is another important factor operating. In order for the intermolecular forces to work well, the molecules must be able to pack together efficiently in the solid.

Trans isomers pack better than cis isomers. The “U” shape of the cis isomer doesn’t pack as well as the straighter shape of the trans isomer.  The poorer packing in the cis isomers means that the intermolecular forces aren’t as effective as they should be and so less energy is needed to melt the molecule – a lower melting point.

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules.

Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state.

Methane is a gas, up to pentane is a liquid

Distillation towers cool as the towers rise

dashes away, solid line towards

f layer 2500 miles, e layer 1200 miles

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
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