Home > Anatomy, Biology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 53: Cytology

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 53: Cytology


We’ll begin a review of the cell today, part 1 of 4.  This costs 64 minutes.


Cell theory postulates that all cells come from other cells.  Cells will only grow so big; after that, they’ll stay the same size or divide.  Man is made of 60 trillion cells.

He shows circles with area versus volume.  The sphere is the structure that maximizes the surface area per unit volume.

Radius:                            1      2       3      4

Area:     4 pi r^2            1       4       9       16   …then mitosis

Volume:     4 pi r^3/3  1      8       27         64

Ratio:                               1      1/2   1/3       1/4

The internal volume is increasing at a faster rate than the surface area.  The surface area is how the cell brings nutrients in and takes waste out.

The difference between the surface area and the volume determines how large the cell can grow.  Smaller cells are usually better.

Nutrients in include O2, glucose, AAs, nucleotides, vitamines, minerals, H2O.  Waste out include CO2, NH3, Uric acid, H2O.  Inside the cell cellular respiration, protein synthesis, replication, transcription and translation occur.  Vitamins are organic coenzymes, minerals are inorganic coenzymes.

Types of Cells:

Prokarotes lack a nucleus and include bacterial cells.

Karyo means nucleus.  Pro means before.

Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and many complex organelles.  Includes protists, fungi, plants and animals.

The cell membrane provides a boundary for the cell.  Acts as a semi-permeable membrane.  Double layer or bilayer of phospholipids with attached proteins.  Glycoproteins on the cell surface.  Some have microvilli that increases surface area.

Bacteria have cell walls made of polysaccharide.  Cytoplasm is 80% water and the rest is proteins.  Has the consistency of jello.

Skin cells are dead because they are in contact with the atmosphere.  Fluid surrounds the cells of the body.

Ion channels act like a pore for ions to flow through.  Calcium ion channel blockers are used for angina and high blood pressure.  Temporarily block ion channels.

Transport proteins carry sugars and AAs across the cell membrane.  Neurotransmitters are hormones released by neurons.  Seratonin, dopamine, norepinephrine.

Antihistamines cause drowsiness.

Glycoproteins face the outside of the cell.  They allow WBCs to recognize your own cells from foreign cells.  Immunosuppressant drugs are used for transplants.  Corticosteroid called prednisone lowers the WBC count.  IS drugs are necessary for the rest of the lives, or also antibiotics.

Auto immune disease is when WBCs attack your own cells.  Type 1 diabetes is a childhood disease that attacks beta inlet cells.  MS is when WBCs attack the nervous system.


Ion Channels are specific for Na+, Ka+, Ca2+, Cl- can open or close.

Transporter or carrier proteins are specific for sugars, AAs.  Active transport require ATP.

Enzymes catalyse specific reactions.

Receptor site activation changes cell activities

Recognition sites are located on the outside of the cell membrane.

Intestine cells are designed to increase absorption so they have alot of folding.  The stomach cell does not have this microvilli, so it does not absorb much.


Petroleum products: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt).

Intermolecular Forces:
Covalent   400 kcal/mol
H Bonding      15
Dipole Dipole   1
Van Der Waals   <1

State, County, Municipal Offender Data System – SCMODS

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

OIL RIG oxidation is loss, reduction is gain

sagittal, coronal, transverse sections

Night vision: Tapetum lucidum

Bicep: bicep brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis, brachoradialis

1 mEQ = 1 mM x valence  Electrolytes are often given as mEQ.

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

Water 18.02 grams/mole

Keep the dogma simple. Make only 1 or 2 points.

Be forthright and powerfully direct. Speak only in the telling or ordering mode.

As much as possible, reduce concepts down into stereotypes which are black and white.

Speak to people’s emotions and stir them constantly.

Use lots of repetition; repeat your points over and over again.

Forget literary beauty, scientific reasoning, balance, or novelty.

Focus solely on convincing people and creating zealots.

Find slogans which can be used to drive the movement forward.

Abduction away

Bonds: ionic, polar covalent, covalent

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole/dipole, VdW

mEQ indicates the total number of electrical charges.

HCO3.  H+ (CO3)-  major buffer found in the ECM.

HPO4– monohydrogen phosphate is the major buffer found in the cytoplasm.

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equatorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Flight:supracoracoideus and the pectorals

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 kJ/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

equatorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

radius thumb, pinky ulna

Octane Rating: heptane/2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Atmophere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

sigma bond: end to end overlap

23 cm – 1296 MHz

70 cm – 443 MHz

pi bond: sideways overlap

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the cis isomer has the higher boiling point.

Why is the boiling point of the cis isomers higher?  There must be stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules of the cis isomers than between trans isomers.

Why is the melting point of the cis isomers lower?

You might have thought that the same argument would lead to a higher melting point for cis isomers as well, but there is another important factor operating. In order for the intermolecular forces to work well, the molecules must be able to pack together efficiently in the solid.

Trans isomers pack better than cis isomers. The “U” shape of the cis isomer doesn’t pack as well as the straighter shape of the trans isomer.  The poorer packing in the cis isomers means that the intermolecular forces aren’t as effective as they should be and so less energy is needed to melt the molecule – a lower melting point.

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules.

Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state.

Methane is a gas, up to pentane is a liquid

Distillation towers cool as the towers rise

dashes away, solid line towards

Precious stones: emerald, diamond, sapphire, ruby

four classes: lignite, subbituminous, bituminous and anthracite.

f layer 2500 miles, e layer 1200 miles

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
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