Home > Anatomy, Biology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 54 Notes: Cytology

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 54 Notes: Cytology


We’re kind of working in reverse order, but that’s alright.  Here is part 2 of our cytology review.  The cost to you is 35 minutes.



Functions of Proteins:

Ions are Na+, K+, Ca2+ or Cl-.  Cations are positive, anions are negative.  Ion channels can open or close.  They are specific.

Transporter or carrier proteins carry sugar or AAs into cells.  They are specific.  May require energy or ATP to work.

Enzymes catalyze specific reactions.

Receptor sites are located on the outside of the cell.  They are specific for certain hormones, NTs, drugs.  Activation of a receptor site leads to changes in cell activities.  A receptor site can be bound or blocked.   The heart has no estrogen receptor sites to estrogen does not effect it.

A drug can only affect cells that have the proper cell receptor site.  The drug goes everywhere.

Recognition sites include glycoproteins and allow WBCs to recognize your cells from foreign cells.

A close match is the only time when tissues will be donated.  The technicians will look for similar identifications.  Organ rejection is caused by WBCs and our own immune system.  Immunosuppresent drugs are given to decrease the immune response and WBC count – that patient will use this the rest of his life.  Corticosteroids are commonly employed for this.

Autoimmune diseases are when the body attacks itself.  Rheumatic heart disease attacks the heart, rheumatoid arthritis attacks the joints, juvenile onset diabetes attacks the pancrease.  These patients are not making identity markers.

The cytoskeleton is made of a network of proteins organized into microtubules and microfilaments.  This permits changes in the shape of the cell.  The tube is bigger that the wire.  Microtubules are capable of moving.

Nucleus means center.  The nuclear membrane contains pores.  Nucleoplasm has water, protein and DNA.  The nucleolus stores RNA.  Uncoiled DNA is chromatin.  Coiled DNA is a chromosome.

The endoplasmic reticulum is inside a tubular netowrk inside the cytoplasm.  It is a little circulatory system.

The SER or smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for lipid metabolism and steroids.  Contains enzymes involved in lipid and steroid manufacture.

The granular or rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes that synthesize proteins.  Ribosome is mostly RNA, rRNA and are made in the nucleolus.

The golgi complex – a bunch of flat sacs.  This is like the post office of the cell.  Stores, modies, and packages chemical substances formed in the ER.

Storage vesicles are small, storage vacoules are large.  These are secretion vesicles.  Food vacoules are like an ameba or WBC that phagocytizes or eats an organism.

Lysosomes are suicide bags.  They are formed in the Golgi complex.  Contrain hydrolystic or digestive enzymes.  They enact cell death or apoptosis.  They atrophy the uterus during menopause at 50 years old.  They atrophy a tadpole’s tail.

Meat is muscle cells.  Very high in protein.  If you put meat into a pot and boil it, some protein will enter the solution and other protein will denature.

The cytoplasm is 80% water.  The rest is mostly protein, yielding a consistency of jello.


Intermolecular Forces:
Covalent   400 kcal/mol
H Bonding      15
Dipole Dipole   1
Van Der Waals   <1

A stronger acid will tend to react with a stronger base to produce a weaker acid and a weaker base

Bronsted acids donate hydrogen, Lewis acids accept electrons.

  1. March 26, 2013 at 5:55 am

    Here’s a link to the video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4m3fGnPRjHM

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