Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 56 Notes: Flowers

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 56 Notes: Flowers


Today we have a 39 minute lecture on fertilization and pollination.


Some plants reproduce vegetatively or asexually.  Potatoes do it.  Each potatoe eye can become a new plant.  The top of a carrot is similar.  strawberries and cacti are included.

The outer structures are cevils, then petals, then the male parts called the stamen, then the female part the pistol.

In the very center of the flower is one pistol.  “Pistol packing mama.”  Ma Cass.  The very top is the stigma and it is sticky.  Pollen sticks to the pistol.  Right below the stigma is the style.  The bottom of the pistol is the ovary.  One or more eggs or ovules inside the ovary.

Surrounding the pistol is many stamens.  The number of stamens is monocot or dicot.  Monocots are multiples of 3, dicots are multiples of 4 or 5.  The anther is colored and contains the microgametes.  Monocot vessels are in a straight line.

If the plant is insect pollinated, the petals are colored.  The sepels are below the petals and may be the same or different color.  The corolla is all the petals.  All the sepels are the caylx of the flower.

***He goes through a very nice show and tell of a flower – the lily, the rose.***

A regular flower has similar petals.   An irregular flower has petals that are all different.  The corolla tube is when all the petals are joined together.

Either wind or insects are responsible for pollination.  The pollen grain can grow a tube from stamen to ovule.  Chromosomes move down the tube – this is fertilization.  The embryo becomes the seed.

microgamete+macrogamete = embryo=seed

Ovary enlarges to become the Fruit.

An apple is a fruit.  The bottom of the apple is the flower parts.  The stem is where it connects to the tree.  A fruit is an enlarged ovary and it has seeds in it.

Inside a peach or plum is a pit which is the seed.  Tomatoes, bell peppers and string beans are fruits.  Anything with seeds in it are fruits.  A vegetable is something that does not have seeds in it – its a meaningless word.

Rose hips are the fruit of the rose.  They provide vitamin C.

WHen there are both stamens and pistols inside, the flower is a perfect flower.  Some flowers have only stamens or pistols inside – an imperfect flower.  Staminate flowers have only stamens inside.


Petroleum products: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt).

State, County, Municipal Offender Data System – SCMODS

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

OIL RIG oxidation is loss, reduction is gain

sagittal, coronal, transverse sections

Night vision: Tapetum lucidum

Bicep: bicep brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis, brachoradialis

1 mEQ = 1 mM x valence  Electrolytes are often given as mEQ.

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

Water 18.02 grams/mole

Keep the dogma simple. Make only 1 or 2 points.

Be forthright and powerfully direct. Speak only in the telling or ordering mode.

As much as possible, reduce concepts down into stereotypes which are black and white.

Speak to people’s emotions and stir them constantly.

Use lots of repetition; repeat your points over and over again.

Forget literary beauty, scientific reasoning, balance, or novelty.

Focus solely on convincing people and creating zealots.

Find slogans which can be used to drive the movement forward.

Abduction away

Bonds: ionic, polar covalent, covalent

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole/dipole, VdW

mEQ indicates the total number of electrical charges.

HCO3.  H+ (CO3)-  major buffer found in the ECM.

HPO4– monohydrogen phosphate is the major buffer found in the cytoplasm.

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equatorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Flight:supracoracoideus and the pectorals

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 kJ/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

equatorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne/nitrile/ester 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol/malonate 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5

Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

radius thumb, pinky ulna

Octane Rating: heptane/2,2,4-trimethylpentane

Atmophere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

sigma bond: end to end overlap

23 cm – 1296 MHz

70 cm – 443 MHz

pi bond: sideways overlap

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the cis isomer has the higher boiling point.

Why is the boiling point of the cis isomers higher?  There must be stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules of the cis isomers than between trans isomers.

Why is the melting point of the cis isomers lower?

You might have thought that the same argument would lead to a higher melting point for cis isomers as well, but there is another important factor operating. In order for the intermolecular forces to work well, the molecules must be able to pack together efficiently in the solid.

Trans isomers pack better than cis isomers. The “U” shape of the cis isomer doesn’t pack as well as the straighter shape of the trans isomer.  The poorer packing in the cis isomers means that the intermolecular forces aren’t as effective as they should be and so less energy is needed to melt the molecule – a lower melting point.

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules.

Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state.

Methane is a gas, up to pentane is a liquid

Distillation towers cool as the towers rise

dashes away, solid line towards

Precious stones: emerald, diamond, sapphire, ruby

four classes: lignite, subbituminous, bituminous and anthracite.

f layer 2500 miles, e layer 1200 miles

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
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