Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 57 Notes: Osmosis

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 57 Notes: Osmosis


Today we have a 43 minute lecture on diffusion and osmosis.

I found a really jazzy demo on osmosis:


A solution is made up of a solute and a solvent.  The solute is poured into the solvent.  The solvent is usually water.

Concentration is the amount of solute dissolved in a specific liquid volume.

Percent concentration = grams of solute/100 mL H2O

The most common solution used in the hospital: 5% dextrose, .45% NaCl.

Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of a solute from high to low concentration.

The ECF is 80% water or tissue fluid.  A cell is 80% fluid.  All living cells need to be surrounded by water.  All cells on the outside of the body is dead by contact with air.  Clear fluid oozing is ECF.

The cell membrane is made up of a double layer of lipids or a bilayer.  Phospholipid.  Each phospholipids looks like a balloon with two springs.  The hydrophilic part is attractive to water.  The lipid tail is hydrophobic.

4 Factors affecting diffusion:


The concentration gradient/difference


Solublility – polar or non-polar?

Osmosis is the diffusion of water or of the solvent.

Any cell is 80% water, 20% proteins.  Isotonic solutions are 5% glucose, 0.9% NaCl.

Hypotonic solutions are low in solute.  High in H2O, hippo.   Water flows in.

Hypertonic solutions is low in water, high in solute.  The cell will crenate or collapse.


“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine


Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

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