Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 59 Notes: Cell Lab

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 59 Notes: Cell Lab


We’re going to go back to cells today.


Every cell comes from pre-existing cells.  Cells come in two types: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  Anything smaller than a cell is not considered to be alive.  Eukaryotes are typically 1000 x bigger than prokaryotes.  A hair is twice as thick as a normal cell.

Prokaryotes have a rigid cell wall outside the PM made of polysaccharide, a plasma membrane, no nucleus, no internal organelles, a plasmid that is just circular DNA.

Eukaryote means true nucleus.  eukaryotes have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus containing >1 chromosome, a nucleolus storing RNA, mitochondria that break down sugars into energy.

Plant cells possess a rigid cell wall made of polysaccharides or cellulose, vacuoles store water and waste products.  Chloroplasts are unique to plants.  Chlorophyll gives them their color.

6CO2 + 6 H2O + 36ATP = 6O2 + C6H12O6

The centriole plays a key role in cellular division.  Onion cells do not have chloroplasts.  Most cells in the body are colorless.  Cheek cells look pink because of small blood vessels having RBCs running through.

Only two cells in the human body should be able to move: WBCs and sperm.  Cancer is when other cells move when they should not be moving.


Strong bases make poor leaving groups.  Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions.  SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds.  They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.

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