Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 65 Notes: Integumentary System

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 65 Notes: Integumentary System


Today we have a 47 minute lecture finishing the integument.



A bruise is a hemotage of the cutaneous blood vessels.

Water squirts out of blood capillaries.  Lymphatic capillaries return the fluid.

Proprioceptors deal with body awareness.


The eponychium is the cuticle fold.  Nails are made of keratin.  The hypochium is the membrane underneath the nail.  Nails are almost colorless.

Skin Infections:

Viral Infections

small pox – the sores are where the virus entered a cell and lysed.  Begins in the skin and can spread throughout the body.



German Measles

cold sores and fever blisters

Viruses consists of DNA/RNA and a capsid which surrounds it.

Antibiotics are against life.  Viruses are not alive.  Immunization is strengthen the immune system before it is really exposed.  High temperatures can make the proteins denature.

Bacterial Infections:

Bacteria are the smallest living things.

Coccus – Round shaped


Spirillum – Rod shaped

Fungal Infections

Athletes Foot


Crotch Eczema/Jock Itch

Vaginal Yeast Infections – caused by Candide albicana,  Treated with Monostat.

Allergic Reactions

This is hypersensitivity to an innocuous agent.  Everyone is allergic to poison ivy.


Moles – elevated pigmented skin

Keratosis or Skin Tags – brownish warty growth

Bedsores – red sores forming over bony prominences in the body

Mast cells release histamine.

antihistamines include Benadryl

corticosteroids include CORTAID.

bed sores are grounds for a lawsuit.  neglect


Carcinomas – epithelial tissue

Melanoma – melanocytes.  Stratum germanititum.


Albinism – no melanocytes are produced


Keloids – when the dermis spills over the top of the epidermis during healing.


1st degree – epidermis destroyed.  Red, peeling

2nd degree – intradermal burn.  Part of the dermal burned.  Scalding hot water.  Blisters.  The skin will heal in 2-3 weeks.

3rd degree – Burn through the dermis.  Direct contact with flame, high voltages or chemicals.  No pain.  All sensory neurons destroyed.  May require grafting.  An autograft is the skin from your own body, usually the back.


Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known.  959 in hermaphrodite.  Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups.  Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions.  SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds.  They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.

  1. April 10, 2013 at 4:27 am

    • April 10, 2013 at 5:48 am

      Thanks for the link! It will come in handy when I get there.

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