Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 66 Notes: Living Things

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 66 Notes: Living Things


I think we’ll do some more histology after this.  For now, we’re just cleaning up alot of the remaining lectures.  Ratfink mentioned that histology is one of the most important areas in all of medicine.


All life comes from previous life; cells.  Living things need energy to stay alive.  Living things exhibit growth and development.  Living things respond to environmental changes.  Living things reproduce.  Living things adapt to the environment.

All living things reproduce because they die, mortality.  Life must be extended into the future.  A child can’t reproduce, a postmenstral woman.

The donkey (62 chromosomes) and horse (64 chromosomes) can make a mule.  Mules (63 chromosomes) are sterile.  A zorse is a zebra and a horse.  A zebule is a zebra and a mule.  Horses, donkeys and zebras are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.  Horses are native to Europe.  Donkeys are indigenous of Asia.  Zebras in Africa.

Homeostasis is the attempt to maintain a constant internal state.  At higher altitudes, you’ll start breathing faster.

Evolution is when a population adapts over many generations.  Individuals do not evolve.

Unique Characteristics of Human Beings

Language/Culture (anything man can do that monkeys cannot…)/Self cognition/Ability to anticipate and plant for the future.

Levels of Organization

Elementary Particles – electrons, protons, neutrons







Organ System




Biome – same climate, same life, same plants

Biology Applications:

Agriculture, food production, medicine, nutrition, environmental relations


Anabolism is growth, catabolism is destructive.

The most important chemical reaction on Earth:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP


HF   92 pm
HCl 127
HBr 141
HI 161
HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall free me.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known.  959 in hermaphrodite.  Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups.  Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions.  SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds.  They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.


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