Home > Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 68 Notes: Histology Review

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 68 Notes: Histology Review


We’re going to review histology for 3 lectures.  After that, I want to cover this lecture (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7XfhLKAvOA&feature=plcp).  Today’s histology offering costs you 34 minutes.

This lecture series might be covered by us soon as well.  I’ll put it here so I remember it.



Connective tissue (CT) is made from the mesoderm.  CT is made up of cells and intercellular fluid.  CT is not packed tightly together.  CT is highly vascularized.  Epithelial tissue has no blood vessels.



The most pervasive tissue in the body.


This is most cells.  Secretes proteins into the intercellular space.  Of two types: collagen (strength) and elastin (elasticity).  It looks like purple ropes.


Engulf foreign bodies.

Mast Cells

Secrete histamine and heparin.  Injury causes histamine secretion.  Histamine dilates BVs, this causes a warming and erythria or turning red.  This increases the flow of O2 and nutrients.  Increases local permeability of BVs, causing swelling or edema.  Local stimulation of pain fibers.

redness + swollen + pain = inflammation

Adipose tissue is CT.  The large vacuole holds a sac of lipids.  The purpose is to insulate against heat loss, prevent injury and store energy.

Two Types of Dense Fibrous CT

Dense Regular – the collegan runs in the same direction.  Found in tendons or ligaments, the dura mater.  Periosteium, fascia.

DAP dia mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater.

Dense Irregular – the collagan runs in many directions.

The skin is made up of a top layer called the epidermis and a lower layer called the dermis.  The epidermis is made of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium with some nonkeratinizing SSE below it.  The dermis is made up of irregularly arranged dense fibrous CT.

The epidermis comes from ectoderm; the dermis originates from the mesoderm.

The epidermis inside the cheek is not-keratinized.  Injections will go into the dermis.

The skin on the outside of the cheek is keratinzed  and right below that is the dermis, irregularly

Cartilage is unusual; it has no BVs.  That’s why it doesn’t heal well.  Made up of chondrocytes surrounded by lacuna.

Glucoseamine is another protein found in cartilage.

3 Types of Cartilage

Hylain – found in early bone tissue.  Found in the trachea, the front of the nose.

Fibrocartilage makes up the intervertebral disks.

Elastic cartilage makes up the ears.


Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF   92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known.  959 in hermaphrodite.  Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm.  Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups.  Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions.  SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds.  They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.

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