Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 69 Notes: Histology Review

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 69 Notes: Histology Review


We continue our review of histology with a 49 minute presentation on bone cells. 


Ratfink has a new lecture up that we’ll cover soon:



Bones are alive!  Osteocytes are bone cells. 

Two types of minerals are found in bones.: Ca3(PO4)2  and CaCO3.  Collagen is also secreted.  Calcium phosphate is harder. 

Bone tissue is highly vascularized.  Bones are only capable of growing in width or thickness. 

There are two types of bone: compact and spongey.  The outside of the bone is compact and dense.  The inside is spongey so that the bone can flex.  All compact bone would weigh too much.

Osteoblasts build, osteoclasts digest bone.  Bone resorption is the digestion of bone and the release of calcium. 

Calcitonin stimulates the osteoblasts; parathyroid hormone stimultes the osteoclasts. 

The epiphesis is the ends of the bone; proximal and distal end.  The diaphoris is the shaft of the bone.  The periosteum protects the outside of the bone. 

Bone cells are arranged in concentric circles, like the rings of a tree.  Osteocytes in the middle, surrouned by a lacuna.  Calcium salts are secreteted to the spaces between the cells.  The Haversion system or osteon has a Haversian canal where an artery passes through. 

Types of bone: irregular, long, short, flat

The femur and tibia are long bones.  The phalanges are short bones.  The frontal bone is flat.  The vertebra is irreggular. 

Children have ephysial plates.

Medullary cavity is the marrow cavity.  Yellow marrow is fat, red marrow is blood.  By age 20, most bones stop producing RBCs.  Only the sternum, vertebra and the ribs make RBCs, in the axial skeleton. 

Our bone develop in two ways.  Long bones develop out of cartilage; endochondral ossifcation.  The other types develop out of intramembranous ossification.  All connective tissue including bones comes from the mesoderm.  There is a differentiation into hylaine cartilage. 

The primary ossifcation center begins in the middle. 

The epheseal plate is also known as the growth plate.  GH and test stimulate the growth of cartilage at the epipheseal plate. In adults the epipheseal plate becomes the epiphesial line.

For endochondral ossification, mesoderm becomes cartilage into bone. 

For intermembranesous ossifcation, mesoderm becomes fibroblasts or dense fibrous tissue then bone.  The intermediates are different. 

Blood is the last category of CT.  It is made up of both fluid and cells.  RBCs carry oxygen.  WBC or leukocytes defend us against bad guys.  Platelets.  Plasma fluid is water and proteins.  Plamsa is the intracellular matter, the stuff between the cells.  The proteins are made by the liver. 

A neoplasm is an abnormal growth of cells. A benign cancer featuress increased mitosis but it stays in one place. Treatment involves surgical removal.    Malignant cancer cells metastasize or migrate. 

85% of all carcinomas originiate in epithelial cells. 


Pheylalanine: TTT/Ttc 1.836, 9.13

Bullets hit high in warm weather, low in cold

Villi are made up of two different kinds of cells: absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells

Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF 92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known. 959 in hermaphrodite. Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm. Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups. Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions. SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds. They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.

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