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Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 70 Notes: Histology Review


Today we’ll review the last part of what Ratfink offers on histology.  After that, on to some new material.  This lecture is only 20 minutes. 


I also watched this 30 minute general review of anatomy.  This was designed for a cosmetology course (?). 



Embryonic stem cells can grow into any cell in the body. 

Tissue: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Protoplasm is another word for cytoplasm.  It’s the liquid broth that sustain the cell with water, proteins, lipids, carbs.  Like an egg yolk. 

An organ is made up of two or more tissues. 

Cells packed closely together.  Epithelial tissue are next to a CT that has a blood supply.

How many cell layers are there?  One layer is simple, more than one is stratified. 

Squamous – flat and round.

Cuboidal – cube shaped, all sides roughly the same size. 

Columnar – a cell that is taller than it is wide. 

Striated muscles are voluntary, unstriated muscles are involuntary. 

Some epithelial tissue may be modified with cilia or microvilli.  Cilia moves.   Microvilli are used to increase surface area.

The body has many mucus secreting goblet cells.  Mucus lines the inside of the stomach to protect it from HCl. 

Simple squamous can be folded or rolled into a tube. 

Simple cuboidal is found in all glands of the body.  The urinary and renal tubules. 

“The brush border” is another name for all the microvilli in the small intestine. 

Ciliated mucus membrane is another name for “the works.”

Transitional epithelial.  Inner lining of the urinary bladder.  The shape of the cells changes.  This allows the expansion of the bladder.  Stratied cuboidal.

The pronater turns the palm down.  The supinator turns the palm up. 

Stratified squamous.  Named for surface layer.  Areas subject to abrasion.  Two subtypes: non keratinizing and keratininzing. 

Non-keratinizing cells form the inner lining of the oral cavity and do not have a dead layer on the top. 

Keratinizing cells do have a dead top layer.  They also have a middle brown layer called melanin.  Usually found on the skin of the body, all areas subject to abrasion. 

Simple columnar with microvilli and goblet cells.  This forms the inside lining of the small intestine. 

Pseudostratifed columnar with goblet cells (the works).  The cells are all different heights.  Has cilia.  Forms the inside lining of the respiritory tract.  The cilia pushes fine particles out of the airways.  Mucus warms and humidifies the air. 


Pheylalanine: TTT/Ttc 1.836, 9.13

Bullets hit high in warm weather, low in cold

Villi are made up of two different kinds of cells: absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells

Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF 92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known. 959 in hermaphrodite. Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm. Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups. Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions. SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds. They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.

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