Home > Anatomy, Biology > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 72 Notes: Fungi

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 72 Notes: Fungi


I’m really a big fan of Ratfink’s lectures.  Today we’ll cover the fungi kingdom and tommorow we’ll move to the CNS and neurotransmission. 



There are 100K species of fungi. 

There are 5 kingdoms: plantae, animalia, protista, fungi,

Fungi are multicellular heterotrophs.  Most are decomposers, some are parasites.  Bacteria and fungi compete for food. 

Molds, mildews, mushrooms, bracket fungus.  Yeast is unicellular.  Mildew feeds on plastic curtains.  Plastic is an organic compound, made from oil.  Classification is very complicated. 

All fungi have cell walls made of polysaccharides.  Asexual reproduction by spores dispersed in air and water. 

The single celled yeasts are somewhat larger than bacteria but are eukaryotes. 

Brewer’s yeast is used to make beer and other alcohols.  All grains contain maltose.  Barley is the most common grain.  Maltose is a disaccharide made of two glucoses.  Most beer is 6 proof.  Stout malt is 10 proof. 

% Alcohol = Proof/2

Under anerobic conditions, the yeast breakdown maltose grain sugar for energy, making ethyl alcohol and CO2. 

Maltose – Glucose – Pyruvic Acid – Methyl Alcohol/CO2

Grapes – Yeast/Anerobic Fermentation – Wine 24 proof

Wine – Distill – Brandy 60 proof

Too much alcohol will kill the yeast.  Over 14% alcohol, the yeast start dying.  How to make a higher proof drink?  Heat it, boil off the water.  You can buy wine with the CO2 still in it, which is champagne. 

Grapes – Brandy

Wheat – Whiskey

Potatoes – Vodka

Rice – Saki

Corn – Bourbon

Agave – Tequilla

Apricots – Apricot Brandy

Sugar Cane – Rum

Yeast makes bread rise.  Mix yeast with white flour. 

In an aerobic environment:

Starch – Glucose – Pyruvic Acid – CO2/H2O

Mold is made up of a fuzz that is really a plant like structure.  Hypha are filaments.  There are root structures and a spore like structure. 

Preservatives inhibit fungus and molds.  Without it, bread goes bad in about 3 days.  Molds make cheese. 

Penicillium is a blue green mold that makes penicillin. 

Mushrooms are made of a cap, gills underneath and the stalk.  They can only grow in soil with organic matter. 

Amanita phalloidides is the death angel.  Psilocibe mexiana contains peyote. 

Bracket fungus grows on trees.  Puffballs. 

The Dole family brought pineapples to Hawaii.  Marco polo brought egg noodles to Italy.  Chop suey was created in San Fransisco.  Fajitas was created in LA.  Potatoes are indigeounous to Peru.  Tomatoes are native to Mexico. 

There is parasitic fungi in us.  It grows in warm, wet places.  Ringworm, yeast infections, jock itch, athlete’s foot.  Keep the body cool and dry. 

Lichens appear as flat, crusty growth.  The color comes from symbiosis with a blue green algae (mutualism). 


Substituion Rxns: Markovnikov’s Rule

Elimination Rxns: Zaitsev’s Rule

C2-C4 alkynes are gases
C4-C14 are liquids
C14+ are solids

b) Mild oxidation (K2Cr2O7/H2SO4)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-CH=O + H2O (aldehyde)
R-CHOH-R’ + [O] R-C=O-R’ + H2O (acetone)

c) Energy oxidation (KMnO4, H2SO4, t degrees)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-C=O-OH + H2O (carboxylic alcohol)

H-COOH – formic acid
CH3-COOH – acetic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH – propionic acid
CH3-(CH2)2-COOH – n-butyric acid
CH3-(CH2)3-COOH – n-valeric acid
CH3-(CH2)4-COOH – n-caproic acid

HOOC-COOH – oxalic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH – malonic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH – succinic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH – glutaric acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH – adipic acid

“Know!–Will–Dare–and be Silent!”

G = H-TS

PV = nRT

Parts of Brain: brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, diencephlon

Parts of Brainstem: pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain

Lobes of Brain – frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital

Muscle – smooth, cardiac, skeletal

Blood – RBCs, WBCs, plasma, platelets

DNA replication – helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, Okazaki fragments, ligase

Eukaryotes are multicellular, Prokaryotes are unicellular

Pheylalanine: TTT/Ttc 1.836, 9.13

Bullets hit high in warm weather, low in cold

Villi are made up of two different kinds of cells: absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells

Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF 92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known. 959 in hermaphrodite. Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm. Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Butterfly: egg, larva, pupa and adult.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups. Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Batestian mimicry is mimicing a poison species when harmless; Mullarian is how poison species look alike.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions. SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds. They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.



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