Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 73 Notes: Synaptic Transmission

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 73 Notes: Synaptic Transmission


Okay, today we’ll begin synapic transmission.  This lecture will cost you 46 minutes.



Each sensory neuron synapses with other neurons. 

The definition of an action potential is a complete reversal of the polarity of a cell.

All somatic neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. 

On the inside of the cell, protein is the anion and potassium is the cation.  On the outside of the cell, chloride is the anion and sodium is the cation.  The inside is overall negative and the outside is positive. 

Any NT that opens Na+ ion channels in an excitatory NT.  Ligand gated ion channels open. 

Depolarization is becoming less negative. 

Any NT that opens K+ ion channels is an inhibitory NT. 

Generating an action potential is like pushing a boulder over a cliff. 

Specific enzymes degrade specific NTs. 

Interneurons are the neurons that make decisions. 

Inside most cells is -70 mV.  The threshold voltage is -50 mV. 

Spacial summation is one neuron influencing another.

Glutamic acid; most NTs are modified AAs. 

An injection of neurotransmitters in the blood would last minutes; the degradation enzymes would immediately begin breaking them down. 



Substituion Rxns: Markovnikov’s Rule

Elimination Rxns: Zaitsev’s Rule

C2-C4 alkynes are gases
C4-C14 are liquids
C14+ are solids

b) Mild oxidation (K2Cr2O7/H2SO4)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-CH=O + H2O (aldehyde)
R-CHOH-R’ + [O] R-C=O-R’ + H2O (acetone)

c) Energy oxidation (KMnO4, H2SO4, t degrees)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-C=O-OH + H2O (carboxylic alcohol)

H-COOH – formic acid
CH3-COOH – acetic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH – propionic acid
CH3-(CH2)2-COOH – n-butyric acid
CH3-(CH2)3-COOH – n-valeric acid
CH3-(CH2)4-COOH – n-caproic acid

HOOC-COOH – oxalic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH – malonic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH – succinic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH – glutaric acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH – adipic acid

“Know!–Will–Dare–and be Silent!”

G = H-TS

PV = nRT

Parts of Brain: brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, diencephlon

Parts of Brainstem: pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain

Lobes of Brain – frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital

Muscle – smooth, cardiac, skeletal

Blood – RBCs, WBCs, plasma, platelets

DNA replication – helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, Okazaki fragments, ligase

Eukaryotes are multicellular, Prokaryotes are unicellular

Pheylalanine: TTT/Ttc 1.836, 9.13

Bullets hit high in warm weather, low in cold

Villi are made up of two different kinds of cells: absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells

Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF 92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known. 959 in hermaphrodite. Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm. Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Butterfly: egg, larva, pupa and adult.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups. Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Batestian mimicry is mimicing a poison species when harmless; Mullarian is how poison species look alike.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions. SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds. They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.

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