Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 74 Notes: Synapse Communication

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 74 Notes: Synapse Communication


We continue our review of synapic transmission. 



Catacholamines are norepinepherine, epinepherine, and dopamine.  Epi or adrenatime.  Norepi.  All three are made from tyrosine.  Neurons have enzymes for conversion.

Most Parkinson’s develop after the 60s.  The brain lacks dopamine.  Dopamine cross the blood brain barrier.  Dopa or tyrosine are given, in particular, L dopa.

Ephinepherine is also known as adrenaline.  Directly injecting dopamine wouldn’t last very long as enzymes break it down.  An IV drip might work; normally people just want one injection.  MAO breaks down the chatocholinesseraes. 

Mon Amine Oxidase or MAO.  Oxidies those NTs. 

MAO inhibitors increase DNE levels in the brain.  This is used in the depressed, who have lower levels. 

Enzymes are specific and cannot break down other molecules so well.  Meth is like adrenaline for hours. 

Mimetics is a drug that mimics that action of a hormone or NT in the body.  One way to increase drug lifetime is modifying the structure.  Amphetamine and ephedrine are examples.  Often the difference is just a hydroxyl group. 

MAO mono oxidase enzyme monamine

cAMP is a secondary messenger. 

A metabolite is an inactivated form of a molecule. 

Caffeine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.  cAMP levels rises, it mimics adrenaline. 

Theopyhllwe is found in tea.  Used in asthma. 

Nitric oxide leads to vasocdialation. 

Seratonin is known as 5 hydroxyl tryptophan.  Made from tryptophan.  Turkey and nuts contain tryptophan but drugs are more powerful.

Endogenous morphine means endorphins.  Narcotic analgesics activate endorphin recepor sites. 

Inhibirotry NTs are necessary for sleep.  All vertebrate animals need sleep.  The higher the animal, the more sleep needed.  Sleeping is the brain ignoring the input.  Inhibitory NTs are released. 

INTs allow us to focus.  Sensory discrimination and attention. 

ADD is claimed to be the lack of INTs.  Common in children.  The nervous system and everything else matures faster in women. 

Stimulants like adderall and ritailin oppose INTs by triggering their release. 

No INT is sensory overload or seizures, overstimmulation of the brain. 

The normal position for an infant is to have its fists clenched.  Fine motor control comes from INTs.  Some motor neurons but inhibit others. 

convulsions are the overaction of our motorneurons.  Exaggerated and uncontrolled

convulsion is an overstimulation of the muscles, motor output.  Seizures is too  much sensory inupt. 

Strichnine stops INTs from working.  Seiqures and convlusions develop. 

Tetnus is caused by anaerobic gram negative bacteria.  Determines the antibiotic to use.  Lockjaw is the common name. 

tyrosine from catecholamines. 


Substituion Rxns: Markovnikov’s Rule

Elimination Rxns: Zaitsev’s Rule

C2-C4 alkynes are gases
C4-C14 are liquids
C14+ are solids

b) Mild oxidation (K2Cr2O7/H2SO4)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-CH=O + H2O (aldehyde)
R-CHOH-R’ + [O] R-C=O-R’ + H2O (acetone)

c) Energy oxidation (KMnO4, H2SO4, t degrees)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-C=O-OH + H2O (carboxylic alcohol)

H-COOH – formic acid
CH3-COOH – acetic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH – propionic acid
CH3-(CH2)2-COOH – n-butyric acid
CH3-(CH2)3-COOH – n-valeric acid
CH3-(CH2)4-COOH – n-caproic acid

HOOC-COOH – oxalic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH – malonic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH – succinic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH – glutaric acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH – adipic acid

“Know!–Will–Dare–and be Silent!”

G = H-TS

PV = nRT

Parts of Brain: brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, diencephlon

Parts of Brainstem: pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain

Lobes of Brain – frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital

Muscle – smooth, cardiac, skeletal

Blood – RBCs, WBCs, plasma, platelets

DNA replication – helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, Okazaki fragments, ligase

Eukaryotes are multicellular, Prokaryotes are unicellular

Pheylalanine: TTT/Ttc 1.836, 9.13

Bullets hit high in warm weather, low in cold

Villi are made up of two different kinds of cells: absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells

Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF 92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known. 959 in hermaphrodite. Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm. Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Butterfly: egg, larva, pupa and adult.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Strong bases make poor leaving groups. Good leaving groups form stable ions or molecules.

Batestian mimicry is mimicing a poison species when harmless; Mullarian is how poison species look alike.

Stable cations favor SN1 reactions. SN2 reactions are concerted and require little steric hinderance.

Acetone pKa 24.3

Protic solvents form hydrogen bonds. They produce a cation and anion during the reaction and favor SN1.

3 minutes without air – 3 hours without shelter – 3 days without water – 3 weeks without food.

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