Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 75 Notes: Neurons

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 75 Notes: Neurons


Today we’ll study the basic structure of the neuron. 



Only two types of cells are not circular.   muscular cells and neurons.  Both are excitable and can conduct electricity.  They are long and thin so they are also called fibers. 

the rarer the cell type, the less frequency a cell divides. 

Brain cells are damaged by strokes.  Cardiac muscle cells are damaged by heart attacks. 

Dendrites, soma, nucleus, axon hillock, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier

Some cells are 4 feet long and thinner than nylon.  At 2 years old, you have all the neurons you’ll ever have. 

Bodybuilders hypertrophy the muscle cells they have.  It’s not hyperplasia or an increase of cell number. 

The cell body or soma is where the nucleus is.  Neuronal extensions come as dendrites or axons.  Axons conduct APs away from the soma.  Terminate in synaptic knob.  NTs are released.  Axon collaterals are branches off the main axon. 

PNS has Schwann cells, CNS has oligodendrites

Neurons come in many shapes.  Uni polar, bipolar, multipolar. 

The retina is made of bipolar neurons.  Most sensory neurons are unipolar. 

Sensory neurons conduct APs are input, unipolar, somatic/visceral.

Interneurons are found totally in the CNS. 



Substituion Rxns: Markovnikov’s Rule

Elimination Rxns: Zaitsev’s Rule

C2-C4 alkynes are gases
C4-C14 are liquids
C14+ are solids

b) Mild oxidation (K2Cr2O7/H2SO4)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-CH=O + H2O (aldehyde)
R-CHOH-R’ + [O] R-C=O-R’ + H2O (acetone)

c) Energy oxidation (KMnO4, H2SO4, t degrees)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-C=O-OH + H2O (carboxylic alcohol)

H-COOH – formic acid
CH3-COOH – acetic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH – propionic acid
CH3-(CH2)2-COOH – n-butyric acid
CH3-(CH2)3-COOH – n-valeric acid
CH3-(CH2)4-COOH – n-caproic acid

HOOC-COOH – oxalic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH – malonic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH – succinic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH – glutaric acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH – adipic acid

“Know!–Will–Dare–and be Silent!”

G = H-TS

PV = nRT

Parts of Brain: brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, diencephlon

Parts of Brainstem: pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain

Lobes of Brain – frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital

Muscle – smooth, cardiac, skeletal

Blood – RBCs, WBCs, plasma, platelets

DNA replication – helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, Okazaki fragments, ligase

Eukaryotes are multicellular, Prokaryotes are unicellular

Pheylalanine: TTT/Ttc 1.836, 9.13

Bullets hit high in warm weather, low in cold

Villi are made up of two different kinds of cells: absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells

Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF 92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known. 959 in hermaphrodite. Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm. Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

Biceps: Coracobrachialis, bicep brachi, brachiallis, supinator, brachioradialis

Arrhenius acid H3O+ donor, bronsted acid H+ donor, lewis acid electron acceptor

Bioavailability = Oral dosage/Systemic circulation

Albumin binds weak acids and hydrophobic drugs.

Butterfly: egg, larva, pupa and adult.

Vd = Bioavailable Dose/Concentration in Plasma

The thyroid is regulated by the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Markovnikov’s Rule: addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

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