Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 75 Notes: Hematology

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 75 Notes: Hematology

Overview

We’re going to move back to hematology.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYXJrdGXLNA&feature=plcp

Details

TBV is total blood volume = 8% x BW in kg

.08 x 70 = 5.6 kg = 5.6 L

This is like 2.5 coke bottles, the 2 liter jobbers. 

In a centrifuge, the heavy things go to the bottom, the ligher plasm goes to the top.  Blood cells make up 45% of the blood volume.  55% is plasma. 

So RBCs on the bottom, the buffy coat is WBCs and platelets, and plasma on top. 

Polycythemia is many cells, the conditions of having too much hematocrit.  Anemia is having too few.  Most people who live at high elevations have polycythemia. 

Plasma Volume = 55% x 5.6L

Hematocrit is %PCV or packed cell volume. 

Sometimes whole blood is given, packed cells, or just plasma. 

7% of blood is protein.  Most are made by the protein.  Electrophoresis is used. 

Most proteins are negatively charged.  Smaller protieins migrate faster.  Albumin is the smallest protein.  Alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma globulins. 

Albumin is 60% of all proteins.  Made in liver. 

COP colloid osmotic pressure draws water in. 

Globulins account for 35% of plasma proteins.  Alpha and beta are transporters of fats and minerals.  Fats can’t dissolve in plasma, which is basically water.  Lipoproteins transport fat. 

Alpha globulin is HDL, beta globulin is LDL.  Cholesterol is cholesterol, but there is good and bad lipoproteins.  From the liver to the walls of the arteries is LDL.  From arterial walls to the liver is HDLs.  200 mg/dl is the standard. 

LDL is lethal, HDL is healthy. 

Transferrin transports iron.  It’s a beta globulin. 

Gamma globulins are antibodies or immunoglobulins.  The lymphocyte WBCs make these, the B lymphocytes. 

5 Classes of Immunoglobulins:  o  A D G E M

IGGs – most are these.  The antibodies that attack bacteria and viruses. 

IGEs – we have the least of these.    These are antibodies that are used in allergies. 

Blood clotting proteins.  5% of proteins.  Liver.  prothrombin, fibrinogin.  Centrifuge whole blood. 

Serum is plasma – blood clotting factors. 

Plasma in a beaker will form a clot on the top, you can just scoop it off. 

If you are giving whole blood, heparin must be given constantly to prevent clotting. 

Hemophilia is a genetic inability for blood to clot.  Most hemophilliacs are men, carried on the X chromosome. 

Normal glucose level is 100 mg/dl or 100 mg%. 

Minerals:

Na+ 150 mEq/L

K+ 4 mEp/L
Ca2+

HCO3- bicarbonate, major buffur in intercellular fluids.

Cells are also known as formed elements. 

7 grams of protein per 100 mL.  Albumin, alpha globulins, beta globuins, blood clotting factors.  Albumin maintains blood osmotic pressure. 

Normal RBC count is 5 million/mm3

WBC count is 7K/mm3

RBCs are very small, 8 um in diameter.  Normal cells are 100 um.  No nucleus, no genetic information, only live 4 months.  Made in axial skeleton. 

Antigens on the surface of the RBCs.  Proteins on the surface.  Recognition sites.  MHC proteins.  RBCs have MHC class 2’s. 

ABO antigens – one group, A protein, B protein, O means neither

Rh antigen – second group, positive or negative.  80% is Rh+. 

Most antibodies require seeing an infections.  The ones on RBCs are naturally against those not their type. 

Ammino acids, fatty acids, hormones, cholesterol

Waste Products in the blood: NH3, Urea, Uric Acid, Creatinine, Billiruben, BUN is blood urea nitrogen levels. 

Rh incompatability is when the mother’s immune system attacks the baby. 

Review

Coal: lignan, subbitiouminous, bitouminous, anthrosite

Tissues: muscular, nervous, connective, epithelial

Epithial: simple, stratified, pseudo/cuboidal, squamous, columnar

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