Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 77 Notes: Hematology

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 77 Notes: Hematology


Today is part 3 of hemotology, at 46 minutes long.



Lymphocytes make up 25% of the WBCs.  Formed in the lymphatic organs – lymph nodes, tonsils 

There are two types: B and T.  Embryologic origin is the bone marrow. 

B lymphocytes make anti Bodies or immunoglobulins. 

What do immunoglobulins do? 

Antibodies are y shaped. 

Aglutination – clumping.  Attach to cells.  Prevents the free movement.  makes it easy for macrophages to find them.

Precipitation – clumping of viruses/toxins. 

Lysis/Cytoloysis – cell rupturing

Obsenization – an antibody attaching to a bacteria is like a flare. 

T lymphocytes originate in the thymus.  The thymus shrivels up beginning at puberty.  It made T cells. 

Helper T cells/CD4 cells – release interferon a protein that interferes with viral multiplication.  release cytokines that activate B lymphocytes, activate CD8 cells. 

Cytotoxic cells/CD8/killer cells – cause cell rupturing of foreign cells and infected cells.

Low lymphocyte count can be caused dby chechemo or by HIV.   HIV destroys helper T cells.

WHen CD4 cells are activated, cytokines are activated. 

  Macrophages swallow a virus/bacteria.  Pieces of it appear on the surface of the MP.  This is an antigen epitope.  The helper T cell touches it which is activation.

Next, we look at a real life blood test.

We detect damage to an organ by looking for certain enzymes. 

Normal potassium levels are 5 mg/dl. 


Solution Properties: Freezing point depression,k boiling point elevation

Substituion Rxns: Markovnikov’s Rule

Elimination Rxns: Zaitsev’s Rule

C2-C4 alkynes are gases
C4-C14 are liquids
C14+ are solids

b) Mild oxidation (K2Cr2O7/H2SO4)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-CH=O + H2O (aldehyde)
R-CHOH-R’ + [O] R-C=O-R’ + H2O (acetone)

c) Energy oxidation (KMnO4, H2SO4, t degrees)

R-CH2-OH + [O] R-C=O-OH + H2O (carboxylic alcohol)

H-COOH – formic acid
CH3-COOH – acetic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH – propionic acid
CH3-(CH2)2-COOH – n-butyric acid
CH3-(CH2)3-COOH – n-valeric acid
CH3-(CH2)4-COOH – n-caproic acid

HOOC-COOH – oxalic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH – malonic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH – succinic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH – glutaric acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH – adipic acid

“Know!–Will–Dare–and be Silent!”

G = H-TS

PV = nRT

Parts of Brain: brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, diencephlon

Parts of Brainstem: pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain

Lobes of Brain – frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital

Muscle – smooth, cardiac, skeletal

Blood – RBCs, WBCs, plasma, platelets

DNA replication – helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, Okazaki fragments, ligase

Eukaryotes are multicellular, Prokaryotes are unicellular

Pheylalanine: TTT/Ttc 1.836, 9.13

Bullets hit high in warm weather, low in cold

Villi are made up of two different kinds of cells: absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells

Nucleophiles: negative charge, electrons available, less electronegative

Leaving groups: electron withdrawing, stable, polarizable

SN1 Reaction: Rate = k[substrate] Carbocation Stability Reactivity: 3>2>1>methyl protic solvent

SN2: Rate = k[substrate][nucleophile] Steric Hinderance Reactivity: methyl<1<2<3 aprotic solvent

There is no peace, there is only passion.
Through passion, I gain strength.
Through strength, I gain power.
Through power, I gain victory.
Through victory, my chains are broken.
The Force shall set me free

HF 92 pm HCl 127 HBr 141 HI 161 HAs 172

p H equals p K A plus the logarithm (base ten) of a ratio of chemical concentrations, namely the concentration of the protonated form A H divided by that of the deprotonated form A minus.

pKa + pKb = pKw

Amniotes: reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals

the Cryptodira, which can draw their necks in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their necks to the side.

Battlefield Terrain:

OCOKA Observation, Cover and Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain, Avenues of Approach

C elegans: the developmental fate of every somatic cell is known. 959 in hermaphrodite. Dauer stage.

“Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post. Sharp front sight, pumpkin on a post.”

ethane: staggered/eclipsed Butane: anti, gauche

In anatomical position, the ulna is medial, the radius lateral

Shape, Shine, Silhouette, Shadow, Slow and Still

Just in time

carburetor regulates the flow of air and gasoline into the engine cylinders

Water: OH bond 95.84 pm. Bond angle 104.5

A whip antenna also known as a monopole antenna looks capacitive if it is shorter than a quarter wavelength, and are tuned to resonance with a series inductor.

Fear is control

‘evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season

more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.

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