Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 76 Notes: RAA Reflex

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 76 Notes: RAA Reflex


We’ll cover this homeostatic reflex today for 47 minutes. 



The kidney is an endocrine gland.  Almost every tissue in the body secretes hormones.  Kidney’s secrete renin.

JG cells secrete renin. 

Lower BP, lower plasma Na+, rise in plasma K+.  It’s going to correct for any of the three effects. 

Renin is released and acts on a circulating protein called angiotensinogen.  Most plasma proteins are liver made.  Renin turns it into angiotensin 1 and activates it.  The inactive form has the -gen ending. 

Pepsinogen is converted by HCl to pepsin in the stomach.  Fibrinogen into fibrin. 

Angiotensinogen is cleaved of 4 amino acids by renin. 

An enzyme in your lungs called ACE or angiotensin converting enzyme.  AGT 2 is made or activated.  The adrenal cortex secretees androgen, glucoscorticosteroids, minerosteroids. 


The kidneys are forced to increase potassium excretion into the urine.  If you ate 3 bananas, you might develop hypercholemia.  Increase salt retention.  Increase water.  Decreasing volume decreases BP, increasing volume increases BP.

One could eliminate the loop and just give the kidneys the direct loop.  Slower than the nervous system. 

ADH = Anti Diuretic Hormone

ADH is triggered by an increase in tonicity.  No ADH, you pee out alot of water.  Diabetes incipidus – diabetes means to urinate, sugar comes out of the blood into the urine.  Pissing alot, the smell of acetone on the breath show up during a physical examination. 

Hypercholimia is the polarization

Renin hypertension is causes by high elevels of aldosterone. 

Normal BP is 120/75 in the brachial artery. 

Drugs include: sympatholicis, drugs blocking the RAA reflex.  The first drugs were aldosterone blockers, albocdone.  Angiotensin 2 blocker.ACE inhibitors are popular today.    -il accupril. 

Drug books don’t have pictures.

Leptin is secreted by fat cells.  Adrenaline is a NT. 

Hypo-tension is shock.   


H-COOH – formic acid
CH3-COOH – acetic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH – propionic acid
CH3-(CH2)2-COOH – n-butyric acid
CH3-(CH2)3-COOH – n-valeric acid
CH3-(CH2)4-COOH – n-caproic acid

HOOC-COOH – oxalic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH – malonic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH – succinic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH – glutaric acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH – adipic acid

“Know!–Will–Dare–and be Silent!”

G = H-TS

PV = nRT

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