Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 78 Notes: Cell Membranes

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 78 Notes: Cell Membranes


Today we’ll do a short lecture on plasma membranes.  Cost is 26 minutes. 



The PM lets some molecules in, keeps others out. 

The outer heads are hydrophillic and the inside is hydrophobic.  A butter sandwich, bread on the outside, fat on the inside. 

The cytoplasm or ICF is 80% water.  All living cells need to be surrounded by fluid, the ECF, or they will die. 

Embedded Proteins:

Ion Channels – Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-.  The channels can open or close.  Calcium ion channel blockers are drugs. 

Transporter Proteins: active(needs ATP) and passive transport, (facilitated diffusion).  Transport sugars and AAs.  Uniport, antiport, synport.  Glucose is 24 atoms large, way too big for ion channels.  AAs need help but glucose can manage passive transport. 

Enzymes – proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions. 

Linker proteins affect the cytoskeleton.  They are located always on the cytoplasm side.  microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments.  WBCs change shape. 

Receptor site proteins are activated by signal molecules or ligands. 

Hormones only affect cells with a proper receptor site.  A target cell for such a chemical. 

Proteins hormones are made from AAs, cannot be taken orally.  Insulin is such a PH. 

Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol, can be taken orally.  Can easily diffuse across the PM.  Transcription of a gene is initiated by a steroid hormones. 

Most other hormones and NTs are made from AA and cannot cross the PM. 


H-COOH – formic acid
CH3-COOH – acetic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH – propionic acid
CH3-(CH2)2-COOH – n-butyric acid
CH3-(CH2)3-COOH – n-valeric acid
CH3-(CH2)4-COOH – n-caproic acid

trophere 15 km, stratosphere 50 km, mesosphere, 80 km, thermosphere 500 km, ionosphere exosphere

HOOC-COOH – oxalic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH – malonic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH – succinic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH – glutaric acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH – adipic acid

“Know!–Will–Dare–and be Silent!”

G = H-TS

Tajikistan – 8 million people, capital Dushamba

Krygzstan – captial Bishkek, 6 million

2 linear, 3 trigonal planar/bent, 4 tetrahedral/trigonal pyramidal/angular, 5 trigonal bipyramidal/seesaw/T shaped, 6 octahedral

dipole = charge x distance

colligative properties (dependent on the ratio of particles in a solution/solute): freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure, lower vapor pressure

Integumentary system: stratum cornium, lucidum, granulosum, spinesum, basale.

PV = nRT

Carbonyl sulfide catalyzes AA into peptides

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