Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 79 Notes: Transcription, Translation and Uric Acid

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 79 Notes: Transcription, Translation and Uric Acid


This will be an eclectic lecture.  It will run you 49 minutes. 



Transcription occurs in the nucleus, translation in the cytoplasm.  Inside the nucleus are 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome. 

The smooth ER makes lipids, the rough ER makes proteins.  Each chromosome has about 2000 genes or proteins. 

mRNA is a copy of a single gene.  You can go in and just copy the genes you need; don’t have to make another whole chromosome. 

Replication -> Transcription -> Translation

The ER is a tubular network that leads to the ribosomes. 

Template strand, complementary strand.  Transcription is from 5′ to 3′.  Helicase, RNA polymerase, ligase, Okazaki fragments. 

   2  3

Science isn’t concerned with why, mostly what, when, where, and how.  Evolution is the result of selection, mutation, drift, inbreeding, migration; s u d f m. 

Ribosomes are made of ribosomal RNA or rRNA.  Translation is IET or initation, elongation, termination.

Every 3 nucleotides is a codon or triplet.  Every codon makes an AA. 

AUG is the start codon or methionine.  The three end codons are UAA, UGA, UAG.  UUU specifies phenylalanine. 

Transfer RNAs are tRNAs.  One “truck” for every AA, 20 t RNAs.  The anticodon is the licence plate is for parking.

Afterward, proteins go on to the golgi apparatus.  Skin cells make melanin.  Some make glucagon.  Inlet cells make insulin.  But in the nucleus are the blueprints to make anything.  Only ESCs can make everything as they are undifferentiated. 

Catabolism of Old Proteins.  The old ones are always being broken down into AAs, ammonia, urea, and keto acids.  Old nucleic acids are also broken down into nucleotides into uric acid and filtered out as urine. 

Two major waste products are urea and uric acid.  The ammonia to uric acid conversion occus in the liver. 

3 major waste products in the body are urea, uric acid, and creatnine, which is formed in the muscle. 

Nucleotides are found from food.  All cells contain DNA. 

There are three types of arthritis. 

GOR – Gout, osteo, rheumatoid.

Gout is a metabolic disorder involving uric acid buildup in the joints.  Hyperuricemia.  Most noticeable in the big toe.  Avoid red meat, as skeletal muscle is multinucleated and nucleic acids are broken down into uric acid. 

Osteoarthritis is caused by chronic inflammation and repeated trauma, athletes.  Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease more prevalent in women than men. 


Ethlyene Oxide: CH2OCH2 used to clean medical supplies

Carbonyl Sulfate COS S=C=O converts AAs into peptides

Coal: lignite, subitiouminous, bitouminous, anthrocity

Faces: Joy surprise fear anger digust sadness

Arthritis – GOR gout osteo rheumatoid

Mercury: Hgo elemental, Hg2 2+ mercurous, Hg+2 mercuric

Categories: Uncategorized
  1. No comments yet.
  1. No trackbacks yet.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: