Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 80 Notes: PTH and Calcitonin

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 80 Notes: PTH and Calcitonin


A nice, easy lecture today on the making of bones. 



Osteoblasts build, osteoclasts destroy. 

Types of Bone: Flat, long, short, irregular.  Key words in bone – medulliary cavity, haversian systems, diaphysis, epiphysis. 

Hormones are long range signalling molecules.  Almost every tissue releases hormones: bones, fat. 

PTH comes from the parathyroid glands.



Aldosterone, Insulin, Cortisol, and PTH are all necessary for life. 

Cortisol is necessary for life.  It suppresses the immune system, converts protein to glucose.

Hormones tend to come in pairs. 

Insulin is necessary for life.  Comes from the pancreas.  Insulin is secreted by beta cells and lowering blood sugar levels.  Glucagon is secreted by alpha inlet cells.   Glucagon raises blood sugar levels.  insulin is a purely anabolic hormone. 

Calcium is important for muscle contractions and blood clotting. 

PTH maintains the right amount of Ca2+ in the blood stream.  Ca is a coenzyme for blood clotting. 

The parathyroid glands are about pea sized.  Calcitonin is made by special cells called the para follicular cells. 

Thyrocalcitonin affects the osteoblasts, activating them.  Osteoblasts form calcium salts and transfer Ca from the blood to the bone tissue. 

PTH activates the osteoclasts.  They dissolve bone in bone resorption into the blood stream. 

Boniva and fosumax are two bond building drugs that prevent osteoporosis. 

Estrogen and testosterone are opposites.  They promote osteoblasts.  A woman’s pituitary keeps releasing FSH and OH.  The estrogen levels of menopausal women fall as the ovaries poop out.   Giving HRT or estrogen increases stroke and cancer risk.  Doctors are risk adverse. 

Biphophonates inhibit osteoclasts.  There is synthetic calcitonin available. 

PTH comes from the parathyroid glands.   


Ethlyene Oxide: CH2OCH2 used to clean medical supplies

Carbonyl Sulfate COS S=C=O converts AAs into peptides

Coal: lignite, subitiouminous, bitouminous, anthracite

Faces: Joy surprise fear anger digust sadness

Arthritis – GOR gout osteo rheumatoid

Mercury: Hgo elemental, Hg2 2+ mercurous, Hg+2 mercuric

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