Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 82 Notes: Monera

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 82 Notes: Monera


Today, we’ll explore the monera kingdom.  This lecture clocks in at 43 minutes. 



Fungi, Plants, Animals, Protists, Monera

Monera are unicellular with no nucleus.  They have a cell wall and they have a ring like chromosome. 

There are two groups:

Blue green algae: photosynthesis.  Simple photosynthetic organisms are called algae.  Autotrophic.  Usually green because they have chlorophyll. 

Bacteria: hetereotrophic. 

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6Co2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

There are 1500 species of BGA. 

Bacteria come in 3 flavors:

Cocca – round, diplococcus is two, streptococcus is a long chain.  A staphlocaccus is a cluster. 

Bacclilus –  rod, diplo/strepto. 

Spirachea – spiral

They have a sticky cell wall.  They stick together as they divide. 

Bacteria can be cultured or grow in auger, a sugar solution.  Many years ago, they used to do cultures of throat bacteria, then swab it in the auger. 

There are 20K species of bacteria.  Bacteria tend to feed on non-living things, sewage, feces, dead things – saprotrophys/decomposers.  Bacteria feeding on living things are parasites. 

Pathogenic parasites feed on you.  One or the other must die.  Pimples and boils are caused by staphlococcus.  Strep throat feeds on your throat. 

Bacteria have many commercial uses.  Pickling reaction is a fermentation reaction.  Almost all milk is heated to 145 degrees for 30 minutes, which is called pasteurization.

lactose- glucose- pyruvic acid-  (fermentation)- lactic acid

Nitrogen fixation.  Air is 80%N2, 20% O2. 


Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid. 

Activators donate electrons to the ring, deactivators take electrons from the ring

Acetone pKa = 24.2

H3PO4 pKa = 2.15

Cat hearing – 80 Hz to 80 kHz

NO2 meta director

CH3 OP director

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